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I-USDA Hemp Memo

I-USDA HEMP Memo - Umbhalo Ogcwele

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Ngezansi kweMemo ephelele ye-USDA Hemp:

***

UnitedStates uMnyango Wezolimolture

Ihhovisi le-the Umeluleki Jikelele

Washington D.C.

2025 0-1400

GeneRALCOUNSEL

Kwangathi 28, 2019

ISIKHUMBUZO

ISIHLOKO:

ISIFUNDO SOKUQOPHA SEZIMALI ZESIMEMO SAMAHHALA

NgoDisemba 20, 2018, uMongameli Trnmp.sethathe umthetho umthetho wezoLimo ngokuThuthukiswa kwezoLimo ka-2018, uPub. L. 115-334 (Umthetho Wezolimo wase-2018). Umthethosivivinywa Wepulazi Lezolimo lowama-2018 usemthethweni ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp kuzo zonke izinhloso ngaphakathi kwamapharamitha abekwe kusimiso.  

IHhovisi Lomeluleki Jikelele (i-OGC) likhiphe umbono wezomthetho onamathiselwe ukuphendula imibuzo ephathelene nesev. ukuvuselelwa kwezinhlinzeko ezihlobene ne-hemp zoMthethosivivinywa Wokulima wezi-2018, kufaka phakathi: ukuphuma kwesiphathimandla sezindiza se-industrial hemp kuMthetho Wezolimo we-2014 (2014 Bill Bill) (Isigaba 7605); Isichibiyelo soMthetho Wezokumaketha Kwezolimo wango-1946 ukuvumela amazwe aseMelika naseNdiya ukuthi alawule ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp noma alandele uhlelo loMnyango wezoLimo (i-USDA) olawula ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp (Isigaba 10113); ilungiselelo eliqinisekisa ukuhamba kwe-hemp kwamahhala kwezentengiselwano yangaphakathi (Isigaba 10114); kanye nokususwa kwe-hemp kuMthetho Okulawulwayo Wezinto (Isigaba 12619).

Iziphetho ezibalulekile zombono wezomthetho we-OGC yilezi ezilandelayo:

  1. Mayelana nokwenziwa koMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 ngoDisemba 20, 2018, i-hemp isusiwe ohlelweni I lwe-Controlled Sub zinthu Act futhi ayisaseyona into elawulwayo.
  2. Ngemuva kokuthi i-USDA ishicilele izimiso ezisebenzisa izinhlinzeko ezintsha zokukhiqizwa kwe-hemp yoMthethosivivinywa we-Fa2018m ka-1 oqukethwe kuMthetho Wezokumaketha Kwezolimo wango-1946, Izizwe zaseMelika kanye nezaseNdiya angeke zikwenqabe ukuhanjiswa okuphakathi noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp ngokusemthethweni kwenziwe ngaphansi kohlelo loMbuso noma lweNhlangano noma ngaphansi kwelayisense. ikhishwe ngaphansi kwe-USDA
  3. Izizwe zaseMelika nezamaNdiya nazo angeke zenqabele ukuhamba phakathi noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp ngokusemthethweni okukhishwe ngokusemthethweni ngaphansi kwePulazi lango-2014
  4. Umuntu onecala loMbuso noma i-Federal felony elihlobene nento elawulwayo ungaphansi komkhawulo weminyaka engu-10 wokungakwazi ukwenziwa amandla okukhiqiza i-hemp ngaphansi koMthetho Wezentengiso Wezolimo we-Anction kusebenza ngaphandle komuntu owayekhula ngokusemthethweni i-hemp ngaphansi koMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2014 ngaphambi kukaDisemba 20, 2018, nokugwetshwa kwakhe kubuye kwenzeke ngaphambi kwalolo suku.

IMEMORANDUM Meyi 28, 2019

Ikhasi2

Ngokusebenza koMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018, i-hemp ingahle ikhule kuphela (I) nelayisense elikhishwe ngokuqondile le-USDA, (2) ngaphansi kohlelo olugunyazwe i-USDA State noma Tribal Tribal, noma (3) ngaphansi kwesiphathimandla sokushayela izindiza sezezimboni se-2014 Farm Bill. . Leso siphathimandla sokushayela izindiza sizophelelwa isikhathi ngonyaka owodwa ngemuva kokuthi i-USDA isungule uhlelo lokukhipha amalayisense e-USDA ngaphansi kokuhlinzekwa koMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018.

Kubalulekile ukuthi umphakathi uqaphele ukuthi uMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 ugcina igunya leMelika kanye nezizwe zamaNdiya ukwenza nokuqinisa imithetho elawula umthetho production ze-hemp eziqinile kunomthetho we-Federal. Ngakho-ke, ngenkathi izwe noma isizwe samaNdiya singakwazi ukuvimba ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp ngalowo Mbuso noma i-Tribal teRRitory, kungaqhubeka nokuphoqelela imithetho Yezwe noma Yobuzwe evimbela ukukhula kwe-hemp kuleso Sifundazwe noma i-Tribal teRRitory.

Kubalulekile futhi ukugcizelela ukuthi uMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 awuthinti noma uguqule igunya loNobhala Wezempilo Nezinsizakalo Zabantu noma kweKhomishani Yezokudla Nezidakamizwa ukulawula i-hemp ngaphansi kwemithetho esebenzayo yase-US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

I-USDA ilindele ukukhipha imithethonqubo esebenza ngeziphathimandla ezintsha zokukhiqiza i-hemp ngonyaka ka-2019.

UMnyango Wezolimo we-United States

IHhovisi loMeluleki Jikelele

Washington D.C.

20250-1400

STEPHEN            ER VADEN

IKHOMISHINI JIKELELE

Kwangathi 28, 2019

ISIKHUMBUZO SONOBHALA WONKE WEZOLIMO

ISIHLOKO:      

 UKUVULWA KWEMITHETHO KWEMININININGWANE YOKUGCINWA KWEMITHETHO YOKUZIPHATHA KWEMPAHLA KA-2018

Le memorandamu inikeza umbono wami wezomthetho mayelana nokuthola izinhlinzeko zoMthetho Wokuthuthukiswa Kwezolimo we-1. ("Umthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018"), uPu_b. L No. 2018-115, ephathelene ne-hemp.

Njengoba kuchaziwe ngezansi, le Memorandamu iphetha i-follQwing:

  1. Ngokuya kokumiswa koMthethosivivinywa we-2018 Fam1 ngoDisemba 20, 2018, i-hemp isuswe1 kusukela kusheduli I yoMthetho Wezinto Ezilawulwayo ("CSA") futhi ayiseyona iHemp elawulwayo ichazwa ngaphansi koMthethosivivinywa we-Fa2018m ka-1 ukufaka noma iyiphi insangu isitshalo, noma esuselwe kuso, esingaqukethe amaphesenti angaphezu kuka-0.3 we-delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (“THC”) wesisekelo esomile.
  2. Ngemuva kokuthi uMnyango Wezolimo (“USDA” noma “Depa1tment”) ushicilele imithethonqubo yokuqalisa ukusebenza kokuhlinzekwa kwe-hemp yoMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 oqukethwe kumhlokwana ka-G we-Agricultural Marketing Act ka-1946 (“AMA; '), Izizwe nezizwe zaseNdiya angeke vimbela ukuhanjiswa kwangaphakathi noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp eyenziwe ngokusemthethweni ngaphansi kohlelo lwezwe noma lesizwe noma ngaphansi kwelayisense ekhishwe ngaphansi koMnyango
  3. Izizwe nezizwe zaseNdiya akumele zikwenqabele ukuthunyelwa kwamanye amazwe noma ukuthunyelwa kwama-hemp akhiqizwa ngokusemthethweni ngaphansi koMthetho Wezolimo wezi-2014 (“2014 Farm Bill”).
  4. A Umuntu onecala loMbuso noma i-Federal felony elihlobene nento elawulwayo ingaphansi komkhawulo weminyaka eyishumi wokungakwazi ukwenziwa amandla okukhiqiza i-hemp ngaphansi kwesihlokwana G se-AMA. Ukuhluka kuyasebenza kumuntu owayekhula ngokusemthethweni i-hemp ngaphansi koMthethosivivinywa we-10 Frum Bill ngaphambi kukaDisemba 2014, 20, futhi nokukholwa kwakhe kwaqala ngaphambi kwalolo suku.

Lesi sikhumbuzo sibuye sigcizelele izici ezimbili ezibalulekile zoMhlinzeki Wezolimo wase-2018 ohlobene ne-hemp. Okokuqala, uMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 ugcina igunya leMelika kanye nezizwe zamaNdiya zokusebenzisa nokuqinisa imithetho elawula i production (kodwa hhayi ukuthutha kokuphakathi noma ukuthunyelwa) kwe-hemp okuqinile kakhulu kunomthetho we-Federal. Isibonelo, umthetho woMbuso ovimbela ukukhula noma ukutshala i-hemp ungaqhubeka nokuphoqelelwa yilowo Mbuso. Okwesibili, uMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 awuthinti noma uguqule igunya likaNobhala Wezempilo kanye Nezinsizakalo Zabantu noma uKhomishani Wezokudla Nezidakamizwa ngaphansi kwemithetho esebenzayo yase-US Yokudla Nezidakamizwa.

  1. UMLANDO

I-Th62018 Farm Bill, Pub. L. No. 115-334, omiswe ngoDisemba 20, 2018, ifaka izinhlinzeko eziningana eziphathelene ne-hemp.1 Lo mbono wezomthetho ugxile ezigabeni 7605, 10113, 10114, no 12619, ezifingqiwe ngezansi.

  • Isigaba 7605 uchibiyela isigaba 7606 soMthethosivivinywa Wasepulazini ka-2014 (7 USC § 5940), ogunyaza izikhungo zemfundo ephakeme noma ukwehliswa koMbuso kwezolimo ukuthi zikhule noma zilime i-hemp yezimboni ngaphansi kwezimo ezithile-okuwukuthi, uma i-hemp itshaliwe noma ihlakulelwa izinhloso zocwaningo Isimo esivumela ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp. Phakathi kokunye, isigaba 7605 senza umthethosivivinywa we-2014 Farm Bill § 7606 ukuthi ufune uNobhala Wezolimo ("uNobhala") enze ucwaningo ngalezi zifundo zocwaningo lwe-hemp bese ethula umbiko kuCongress. Isigaba 11 sibuye sichithe i-Frum Bill§ 7605 ka-2014, ezosebenza unyaka owodwa ngemuva kosuku uNobhala asungula ngalo uhlelo ngaphansi kwesigaba 7606C se 2
  • Isigaba 10113 i-aJ11 ixhasa i-AMA ngokungeza isihlokwana esisha G (izigaba 297A kuye ku-297E) (7 USC §§ 16390 -1639s) eziphathelene nokukhiqizwa kwe-hemp. Ngaphansi kwaleli gunya elisha, isizwe noma isizwe samaNdiya esifisa ukuba negunya elilawulayo lokuqalwa kokukhiqizwa kwe-hemp kuleso Sifundazwe noma indawo yalelo sizwe samaNdiya singahambisa, ukuze kuvunyelwe uNobhala, uhlelo oluphathelene nokuqashwa nokulawulwa kwalolo hlobo ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp .. Bona I-AMA § 297B. E-United States noma izizwe zamaNdiya ezingenazo izinqubo ezigunyaziwe, uNobhala uqondiswa ukuthi asungule uhlelo loMnyango oluphathelene nokuqashwa kanye nokulawulwa kokukhiqizwa kwe-hemp kulezo zindawo. Bona I-AMA§ 297C. The

1 Kuchaza uMthethosivivinywa we-Fann we-2014 “Imboni yezimboni” njengoba "isitshalo se-Cannabis saliva L. kanye nanoma iyiphi ingxenye yalesi sitshalo, noma ngabe iyakhula noma cha, ene-delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol okuhlushwa okungaphezu kwamaphesenti angu-0.3 ngesisindo esomile." 7 I-USC § 5940 (a) (2). Umthethosivivinywa ka-2018 uFann Bill ungeze ukwehliswa okusha, okwehluke kancane of "Hemp" engxenyeni engu-297A ye-AMA, echazwe ngokuthi “isitshalo se-Cannabis saliva L. kanye nanoma yimaphi ama-prui alesi sitshalo, kufaka phakathi imbewu yaso nakho konke okuphuma kukho, okukhishwayo, ama-cannabinoids, ama-isomers, i-acid, usawoti nosawoti wama-isom, noma ngabe ayakhula noma cha , enesisindo se-delta-9 tetrahydrocrumabinol engeqi ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angu-0.3 ngesisindo se-dJy. ” 7 USC

  • 16390 (1). Zombili izincazelo zidinga ukuqoqwa kwe-THC okungamaphesenti angaphezu kwama-0.3 ukuze isitshalo seCannabis sativa L. sithathwe njenge-hemp dhidi yensangu. Ngenhloso yalombono osemthethweni, ngisebenzisa imigomo "Hemp" futhi “Imboni yezimboni” ngokushintshana.

2 Umbiko Wenkomfa ohambisana noMthethosivivinywa ka-2018 we-Fann uchaza umthelela wokuchithwa ngale ndlela elandelayo: “Lo mthetho uphinde uphelise izinhlelo zokucwaninga nge-hemp onyakeni owodwa ngemuva kokuba uNobhala eshicilele umthetho wokugcina ovumela ukukhiqizwa ngokuphelele kwe-hemp njengoba kunikezwe esigabeni 297C we [AMA]. ” I-HR REP. Cha. 115-1072, ngo-699 (2018). ·

Unobhala uyacelwa futhi ukuthi akhuthaze imithetho nemihlahlandlela yokusebenzisa imibhalo engezansi

  1. Bona I-AMA § 297D. Igunya elisha liphinde linikeze izincazelo (bheka I-AMA § 297A) nokugunyazwa kokwabiwa kwezimali (bheka I-AMA § 297E).
  • Isigaba 10114 (I-7 UC § 16390 nothi) ilungiselelo elenzelwa abaningi abathi akukho lutho ngesihloko X soMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo we-2018 owenqabela ukuhweba okuphakathi kwemikhiqizo ye-hemp noma ye-hemp. Isigaba 10114 sibuye sihlinzeke ukuthi izizwe zaseMelika nezaseNdiya ngeke zivimbe ukuhanjiswa okuphakathi noma ukuthunyelwa kwemikhiqizo ye-hemp noma ye-hemp ekhiqizwa ngokuhambisana nesihlokwana G ngokusebenzisa uMbuso noma i-teititory yesizwe samaNdiya.
  • Isigaba 12619 kuchibiyela i-CSA ukukhipha i-hemp encazelweni ye-CSA yensangu Isigaba 1 619 futhi kuphelisa i-CSAukuhlanganisa i-THC ku-hemp kuSheduli I.3 \ ::

Ekwenzeni uMthethosivivinywa Wokulima we-2018, iCongress isemthethweni ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp ngazo zonke izinhloso ngaphakathi kwesilinganiso kodwa kugcinelwe iMelika kanye nezizwe zamaNdiya igunya lokusebenzisa futhi lokuphoqelela imithetho eqinile elawula ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp.

  1. ANALYSIS
  1. Ngokuya kokusetshenziswa koMthethosivivinywa we-Fa2018m ka-1 ngoDisemba 20120181 I-Hemp Isusiwe Kuhlelo I soMthetho Wezinto ezilawulwayo futhi Azisekho Izidakamizwa Ezilawulwayo.

I-CSA § 102 (6) ichaza. ”Into elawulwayo” ukusho “isidakamizwa noma enye into, noma isandulela esiseduze, kufakwe kuhlelo I, II, IIl, .JV, noma i-V yengxenye B yalesi sihloko. . . . ” 21 USC § 802 (6). Insangu4 iyinto elawulwayo efakwe ohlwini kuhlelo I lwe-CSA. Bona I-CSA § 202 (c) (10), isheduli I (21 USC § 812 (c), Isheduli I (c) (l0)); 21 CFR § 1308.ll (d) (23).

Umthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 uchibiyela i-CSA ngezindlela ezimbili.

  • Okokuqala, i-2018 Farm Bill§ 12619 (a) ichitshiyelwe incazelo yeCSA yensangu ukukhipha i-h mp. Ngaphambi kokufakwa koMthethosivivinywa we-Fam2018 ka-1, i-CSA§ 102 (16) (21 USC 802 (16)) ichaze insangu kanjena:
  • Igama elithi 'marihuana' lisho zonke izingxenye zesitshalo i-Cannabis sativa L., noma ngabe siyakhula noma cha; imbewu yayo; i-resin ekhishwe kunoma iyiphi i-pa1t yalesi sitshalo; futhi yonke inhlanganisela, ukwenziwa, usawoti, isakhi, ingxube, noma ukulungiswa kwalesi sitshalo, imbewu yaso noma i-res I-tetm enjalo ayibandakanyi izingongolo ezivuthiwe zalesi sitshalo, i-fiber ekhiqizwa kulezo zinhlanga, uwoyela noma ikhekhe elenzelwe imbewu yalesi sitshalo , noma iyiphi enye into eyakhiwe, ukwenziwa, usawoti, isithako, ingxube, noma ukulungiswa kwezinhlanga ezivuthiwe (ngaphandle kwenhlaka ekhishwe lapho), ifayibha, uwoyela noma ikhekhe,

3 Ngemininingwane eyengeziwe · ekukhiqizweni kwe-hemp ngaphambi kokufakwa kwe-2018 Fann Bi.II, bheka ICongressal Research Service, "Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity" (RL32725) (ibuyekezwe ngoJulayi 9, 2018), availukwazi at https: // crukubhuqa.congress.gov/product/pdf/RL/RL32725.

4 Lo mbono usebenzisa isipelingi esivamile “sensangu” ngaphandle kwalapho ucaphuna i-CSA, esebenzisa isipelingi esithi “marihuana”.

noma imbewu inzalo yalesi sitjalo engakwazi ukuhluma.

Njengoba kuchitshiyelwe uMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018, incazelo ye-CSA yensangu manje iyafundeka:

  • Ngokuya ngesigatshana (B); igama elithi 'marihuana' lisho zonke izingxenye zesitshalo seCannabis sativa , ukuthi uyakhula noma cha; imbewu yayo; i-resin ekhishwe kunoma iyiphi ingxenye yalesi sitshalo; futhi yonke into eyakhiwayo, yokwenza, usawoti, okususwayo, ingxube, noma ukulungiswa kwesitshalo esinjalo, imbewu noma resin yayo.
  • Igama elithi 'marihuana' alifaki
  • i-hemp, njengoba kuchaziwe esigabeni 297A soMthetho Wezokumaketha Kwezolimo wango-1946; noma

8.

  • iziqu ezivuthiwe noma isitshalo esinjalo, ifayibha ekhiqizwa ngeziqu ezinjalo; uwoyela noma ikhekhe elenziwe nge

imbewu yesitshalo esinjalo, noma iyiphi enye indawo, umakhi, usawoti, okuvela, ingxube, noma ukulungiselela kwalezo zinhlamvu ezivuthiwe (ngaphandle kwe-resin exn · wasebenza lapho), ifayibha, uwoyela, noma ikhekhe, noma imbewu inzalo yalesi sitshalo engakwazi ukuhluma.

  • Okwesibili, i-2018 Farm Bill§ 12619 (b) ichibiyele i-CSA ukuthi ikhiphe i-THC e-hemp egameni elithi "tetrahydrocannabinols" ngokwesheduli Njengoba kuchitshiyelwe yi-2018 Farm Bill, CSA
  • 202 (c) (l 7), i-I (21 USC § 812 (c) (l 7), ishedyuli I) manje ifundeka:

Ama-Tetrahydrocannabinols, ngaphandle kwe-tetrahydrocannabinols in i-hemp (njengoba kuchaziwe Ngaphansi kwesigaba

I-297A yoMthetho Wezokumaketha Kwezolimo we-1946).

Ngokuchibiyela incazelo yensangu ukukhipha i-hemp njengoba kuchaziwe ku-AMA § 297A, iCongress isuse i-hemp ohlelweni I futhi ilususa ngokuphelele ku-CSA. Ngamanye amagama, i-hemp ayiseyona into elawulwayo. Futhi, ngokuchibiyela uhlelo I ukuze ngingafaki i-THC ku-hemp, iCongress nayo isuse i-THC ku-hemp ku-CSA.

Kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuthi lokhu kuncipha kwe-hemp (ne-THC ku-hemp) kuyazenzisa. Noma imithethonqubo yokusebenzisa iCSA kufanele ivuselelwe ukukhombisa izichibiyelo zoMthetho Wezinhlaka Zepulazi we-2018 kwi-CSA, noma ngabe ukushicilelwa kwaleyo mithethonqubo ehlaziyiwe noma yisiphi isenzo asikho isidingo sokwenza lokhu kususwa.

Ngikhuluma lapha mayelana nokuphikisana okubili okubalulekile ekubonakaleni ukuthi ukuqondiswa kwe-hemp kuyaziphendulela. Isiphikiso sokuqala ukuthi, ngoba izimiso azishicilelwanga ngaphansi kweCSA

  • 201, izinguquko zomthetho zokuhlela i-I mayelana ne-hemp azisebenzi. Lokhu kuphikisa akulungile.

Inqubo ejwayelekile yokuchibiyela amashejuli we-CSA ngokusebenzisa iziphikiso. Ngaphansi kwe-CSA

  • 201 (a), uMmeli Jikelele ”ngomthetho” engeza, asuse, noma adlulise phakathi kwamashejuli, noma iziphi izidakamizwa noma ezinye izinto lapho kwenziwa okutholakele okuthile. 21 USC
  • I-81l (a). Kodwa-ke, amashejuli nawo angaguqulwa ngokuqondile yiCongress ngokusebenzisa izinguquko kusimiso; futhi iCongress ikwenzile kaninginingi.5 ·

Uyabona, isib. I-Pub. L. I 12-144, § 1152 (ukuchibiyela uhlelo I ukufaka ama-cannabimimetic agents); I-Pub. L. 101-647,

  • I-1902 (a) (ishedyuli elungisa i-Ill ukufaka ama-anabolic steroid).

Isiphikiso sesibili ukuthi, ngoba izinguquko zomthetho zokuhlela i-I mayelana ne-hemp azikaboniswa ku-21 CFR § 1308.11, ukususwa akukasebenzi. Lokhu kuphikisa nakho akuvumelekile.

Kuyinto axiomatic ukuthi izimiso icilongo imithetho.  Bona uNat '/ Ukuhlelwa Komndeni Nokuphikiswa. I-Health Ass'n, Inc. v. Gonzales, 468 F.3d 826,829 (DC Cir. 2006) (“[A] umthetho ovumelekile uhlala unqoba umthetho ophikisayo [.]”). ICongress isungule amashejuli amahlanu e-CSA ngokomthetho, ukuhlinzeka ngokuthi “amashejuli ekuqaleni azoba nezinto ezibalwe kulesi sigaba.” 21

I-USC § 812 (a) .6 ICongress iphinde yahlinzeka ngokuthi “[amashejuli] asungulwe yilesi sigaba azobuyekezwa futhi ashicilelwe futhi kabili ngonyaka phakathi neminyaka emibili eqala onyakeni owodwa ngemuva kuka-Okthoba 27, 1970, futhi izovuselelwa futhi yaphinde yanyatheliswa njalo ngonyaka. ” 21 I-USC § 812 (a). Isidingo sokuvuselela nokushicilela kabusha amashejuli, noma kunjalo, akuyona into edingekayo ekusebenzeni kwamashejuli “asungulwe [yisimiso].” Umazisi Ngenye

amagama, lapho iCongress ngokwayo ichitshiyelwa khona amashejuli ukwengeza noma ukususa into elawulwayo, ukungezelelwa noma ukususwa kwento elawulwayo kusebenza ngokushesha lapho kwenziwa umthetho (ukungabikho olunye usuku olusebenzayo emthethweni); ukungezwa kwayo koku noma ukususwa kusuka ohlelweni akuxhomekile ku-rulemaking.7

Ukwenza isibonelo, iCongress yachibiyela i-CSA ngo-2012 ukwengeza "ama-cannabimimetic agents" ku-schedule I.

Lokho kuchitshiyelwa kwamenyezelwa njengengxenye yomthetho iSynthetic Duse Abuse Prevention Act ka2012 (Pub.

  1. 112-144, isihloko XI, isihlokwana D), esasayinwa saba ngumthetho ngoJulayi 9, 2012. Cishe ezinyangeni eziyisithupha kamuva, i-Drug Enforcement Administration ("DEA") yashicilela umthetho wokugcina osungula amakhodi emithi yezidakamizwa ze-cannabimimetic ezingezwe ku hlela mina ngeCongress futhi ngenza ezinye izinguquko ezihambisanayo ukuhlela ukuthi ngihlanganiswe kanjani ku-21 CFR § 1308.11. Bona 78 Fed. Reg. I-664 (Jan. 4, 2013). Ukuchaza ukuthi kungani umthetho wokubusa nokuphawula wawungadingeki, i-DEA yaphawula lokho
    • “Ukubekwa kwalezi zinto ezingama-26 kuSheduli I isivele isebenza kusukela ngoJulayi 9, " Umazisi ku-665 (kugcizelelwa). Ngamanye amagama, izinguquko zomthetho okumele ngizenze ukuze ngihlelelwe ngasebenza ngokushesha lapho ngisebenza. Ukuboniswa kwalezo zinguquko ku-1 CFR § 21, noma kudingekile yi-1308.11 USC § 21 (a), kwakungekho isidingo sokuthi kwenziwe lezo zinguquko ukuhlela i-I.

Ngokuvumelana nalokho, ukwenziwa koMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 kufezekise ukususwa kwe-hemp (ne-THC ku

i-hemp8 evela e-CSA. Ukuguqula izichibiyelo ku-21 CFR § 1308.11, ngenkathi kudingeka njengoba kusihlwa

6 “UMarihuana” kanye no “Tetrahydrocannabinols” zombili zafakwa ohlelweni lokuqala engalusungula yiCongress ngo-1970.

7 I-CJ United States v. Huerta, 547 F.2d 545, I-547 (10th Cir. 1977) (“[F] isimo sokushicilela amashejuli 'abuyekeziwe' njengoba kudingwa yiSigaba 812 (a) awunamthelela ekuvumeni kwalezo zinto ekuqaleni ezazisohlwini lwamahlelo amahlanu.”); I-United States v. Monroe, 408 F. Supp. 270,274 (ND Cal. 1976) (“Ngakho-ke, ngenkathi isigaba 812 (a) siyala ngokusobala amashejuli ezinto ezilawulwayo okumele ziphinde zishicilelwe, it kuyacaca ukuthi iCongress ibingahlosile ukuphindisela ukusebenza njenge ukuphinda kwenziwe amashejuli, okuthi uma enziwe ngendlela engafanele kudale ukuthi lawo mashejuli aphelelwe yisikhathi futhi aphelelwe yisikhathi ……………………… [T] yena

Isidingo sokuthi amashejuli, uma 'esibuyekeziwe,' 'ashicilelwe kabusha' kuphela ngenhloso yokusungula uhlu olulodwa oluzokhombisa zonke izinto njengamanje ezingaphansi kwemibandela yoMthetho …………………………………… ………………………………………………… .. ”).

8 Isheduli I, njengoba ishicilelwe ku-21 CFR § 1308.11, kufaka phakathi incazelo ye "tetrahydrocannabinols" endimeni (d) (3I) engaveli kwi-CSA. Ngaphandle kokuba khona kwaleso sisekelo emithethweni ye-cw · rent, mina

Isibopho se-DEA sokuqhubeka sokushicilela amashejuli abuyekeziwe, akudingekile ukwenza ushintsho loMthethosivivinywa Womlimi wezi-2018 kuhlelo I.9 ·

B.            Ngemuva kokuthi uMnyango Wezolimo Ushicilele Imithethonqubo Yokuqalisa Ukuhlinzekwa Kwama Hemp koMthethosivivinywa Wasepulazini ka-2018 Okuqukethwe Isigatshana G soMthetho Wezokumaketha Kwezolimo we-1946, Amazwe Nezizwe ZaseNdiya Kungenzeka Zingavimbeli Ukuthuthwa Kwendawo Ephakathi noma Ukuthunyelwa Kwe-Hemp Lawfnlly Ekhiqizwe Ngaphansi Kombuso noma Isizwe Hlela noma ngaphansi kwelayisense ekhishwe ngaphansi kohlelo lomnyango. 

I-AMA § 297D (a) (l) (A) iyalela uNobhala ukuthi akhiphe imithethonqubo kanye nemihlahlandlela “ngokushesha okukhulu” ukuze kusetshenziswe isihlokwana G se-AMA. 7 USC § 1639r (a) (l) (A) .. Le mithethonqubo izobhekana nokuvunywa kwezinhlelo zoMbuso nezesizwe ngaphansi kwe-AMA § 297B kanye nokukhishwa kwamalayisense ngaphansi kohlelo loMnyango ngaphansi kwe-AMA § 297C. Njengoba kuchaziwe ngezansi, uma le mithetho isishicilelwe, Izizwe kanye namaNdiya kungenzeka angavimbeli ukuhanjiswa noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp (kufaka phakathi imikhiqizo ye-hemp) ekhiqizwe ngokuya ngohlelo olugunyaziwe loMbuso noma lweSizwe noma olwenziwe ngaphansi kwelayisensi ekhishwe ngaphansi kohlelo loMnyango.

Ukuhamba kwe-hemp kubhekwana nayo ngonyaka we-2018 Farm Bill§ 10114.10 Isigatshana (a) sihlinzeka:

  • IMITHETHO YOBUFAKAZI kulokhu noma ukuchibiyelwa okwenziwe yilesi sihloko kuvimbela ukuhweba okuphakathi kwe-hemp (njengoba kuchazwe esigabeni 297A soMthetho Wezokumaketha Kwezolimo ka-1946 (njengoba kungezwe yisigaba 10113) noma imikhiqizo ye-hemp.

I-7 USC § 16390 inothi. Lokhu kuhlinzekelwa ukuthi akukho lutho ngesihloko X soMthethosivivinywa we-Fann ka-2018

Nginombono wokuthi i-THC ese-hemp ayifakwa ku-THC njengohlelo engilubonayo ngaphansi kweCSA ngenxa yezichibiyelo zoMthetho Wezilimo Wama-2018.

ISheduli I, njengoba kukhonjisiwe ku-9 CFR § 21, ifaka uhlu olwehlukile lwe- ”marihuana extract” esigabeni

(d) (58). Ukukhishwa kwensangu akubonakali kushejuli I kusimiso ngoba sengezwe ngemuva! 970 ngomthethonqubo ngaphansi kwe-CSA § 201. Igama elithi “marihuana extract” lichazwa kumthethonqubo ngokuthi “okukhishwe okuqukethe okukodwa noma ngaphezulu ama-cannabinoids akhishwe kunoma yisiphi isitshalo sohlobo lwe-Cannabis, ngaphandle kwe-resin ehlukanisiwe (noma ngabe crude or purHied) etholakala kulesi sitshalo. ” UMthethosivivinywa Wepulazi wezi-2018 uchibiyele incazelo ethi “marihuana” ukuze ingafakwa i-hemp, kepha ngoba incazelo yokulawula ye- "marihuana extract" kushejuli angisebenzisi amagama athi "marihuana" noma "teb · ahydrocannabinols" ukuchaza i-tenn, kuphakama umbuzo wokuthi ngabe ukukhishwa kwe-hemp kusasebenza yini kuthathwa njengokufakwa ohlwini njengohlu lwezinto ezilawulwayo. Ngenkathi udaba lungabhekwanga phambili kulo mbono, Ngicabanga ukuthi incazelo ebukeziwe esemthethweni ye- "marihuana" isuse ngempumelelo ukukhishwa kwe-hemp kusuka kuhlelo I, nokuthi lokho kuveza okunjalo ngama-21 CFR  § 1308.1I (d) (58) kungaba yisichibiyelo esivumayo nje. ·

10 Ukuhamba kwe-Hemp kubuye kubhekwane nezenzo zokwabiwa konyaka, okubuyisela imali eyabelwe i-Federal kusuka ekusetshenzisweni ukwenqabela i-transpmtation ye-hemp. Noma kunjalo, lawo malungiselelo alinganiselwe esikalini ngoba Ikheli kuphela i-hemp ekhiqizwa ngaphansi kwegunya le-2014 Fann Bill, futhi bakhuluma kuphela Federal izenzo zikahulumeni. Lokho wukuthi, ngenkathi izinhlinzeko zivimbela abalingisi beFederal ukuvimba ukuthuthwa kwalokho okubizwa nge- "2014 Farm Bill i-hemp, ”abavimbeli isenzo soMbuso in ukuthi. Bona Ezolimo, i-Rural Developmerit, Ukudla nezidakamizwa Ukuphathwa, kanye noMthetho Wokwabiwa Kwezinhlangano Ezihlobene, 2019, Pub. L. 116-6, isigaba. B, § 728 (evimbela izimali ezenziwe zatholakala ngalowo Mthetho noma omunye umthetho ekusetshenzisweni ngokungqubuzana ne-2014 Farm Bill§ 7606 noma "ku vimbelat the transpoi-rtation1  processing, Ukudayiswa, or use of umkhakhal i-hemp, or imbewus of juiceh Isitshalo, ukuthi is ikhulile or kutshalwe ngokuya nge- [2014 Farm Bill§ 7606], ngaphakathi noma ngaphandle koMbuso lapho i-hemp yezimboni ikhona kukhulile noma kutshalwa ”). Bhekafuthi Ezokuhweba, ezobulungiswa, ezesayensi, kanye nezomthetho wokwabiwa kwezimali okuhlobene nazo, 2019, Pub.

  1. 116-6, isigaba. C, § 536 (“Azikho izimali ezenziwe yilo Mthetho ezingasetshenziswa ngokungahambisani ne- [2014 Farm Bill§ 7606] nguMnyango Wezobulungiswa noma yi-Drug Enforcing Administration.”).

iyakwenqabela ukuxhumana kwe-hemp. Kodwa-ke, lokhu kuhlinzekwa, kumi yodwa, akunamphumela wokugunyazwa kokuhamba kwe-hemp emazweni aseMelika noma ezindaweni zoMdabu lapho lezo zinto zokuhamba zivinjelwe ngaphansi komthetho woMbuso noma weNhlangano.

Isigatshana (b), nokho, sinqabela ngokuqondile amazwe aseMelika kanye namaNdiya ekuvimbeleni ukuhanjiswa kwe-hemp ngaleyo ndawo yoMbuso noma yeTribal. Isigatshana (b) sihlinzeka

  • UKUSHINTSHA I-HEMP NE-HEMP-Akukho State noma i-Indian Tribe kuyokwenqabela transp011ation noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp noma i-hemp prodLttures kukhiqizwe in ngokuya ngesihlokwana G se Umthetho Wezokumaketha Kwezolimo we-1946 (njengoba wengezwe yisigaba 10113) ngoHulumeni noma i-tenory ye-Indian Tribe, njengoba kusebenza.

I-7 USC § 16390 inothi. Empeleni, lokhu kuhlinzekelwa kukhetha umthetho woMbuso kuze kufike lapho umthetho woMbuso ufinyelela khona

iyakwenqabela ukuhanjiswa kwe-interstate011 noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp okhiqizwe ngokuya ngenhlokwana G ye-AMA.

Njengomthetho womthethosisekelo, “[yena] Isigatshana Sobukhulu sinikeza umthetho ocacile wokuthi umthetho wobumbano 'uzoba nguMthetho ophakeme woMhlaba; futhi abaHluleli kuwo wonke amaZwe bazoboshwa ngalokho, noma yikuphi OkukuMthethosisekelo noma Kwemithetho yanoma yikuphi [iZivumelwano] eziphikisana nalokho…. ' Ngaphansi kwalo mgomo, iCongress inamandla okushaya umthetho [amaSate tate tate]. ” I-Arizona v. United States, 567

I-US 387, 398-99 (2012) (icaphuna ubuciko be-US Const. VI, cl. 2). "Ngaphansi kwemfundiso yenkululeko yombuso, umthetho wesifundazwe uthatha isikhundla somthetho noma umthetho ongahambisani." I-United States v. Zadeh, I-820 FJd 746, 751 (5th Cir. 2016).

Izinkantolo zombuso zivame ukuqaphela izigaba ezintathu zokuzikhulula: (1) ukuveza inkululeko (lapho iCongress “ihoxisa [amandla] oMbuso kuHulumeni“ ngokuhlinzekwa kokukhokhelwa okuveziwe ”); 11 (2) ukukhululwa kwensimu (lapho Izizwe“ zivinjelwe ekulawuleni ukuziphatha emkhakheni iCongress, esebenza ngaphansi kwegunya layo, inqume ukuthi kufanele ilawulwe ukuphatha kwayo okukhethekile ”);12 nokuncishiswa kokungqubuzana (lapho imithetho yoMbuso ifakwa kuqala uma ingqubuzana nomthetho weFederal, ofaka izimo "lapho 'ukuhambisana nemithetho yomthetho kanye [neT] kungeke kwenzeke ngokomzimba'” noma ezimeni "lapho umthetho [weS] oyinselele ' umi njengesithiyo ekufezekisweni nasekufezekisweni kwezinhloso nezinhloso eziphelele zeCongress ”').13 E-Arizona, I-567 I-US ku-399-400 (izingcaphuno ezingenisiwe); bona futhi uZadeh, I-820 F.3d ku-751.

11 Bheka, isib, 7 I-USC § 1639i (b) (“(b) Federal preemption.-Akukho Sifundazwe noma isigatshana sezepolitiki soMbuso esinga ukusungula ngokuqondile noma ngokungaqondile ngaphansi kwanoma iliphi igunya noma uqhubeke ngokusebenza kunoma yikuphi ukudla noma imbewu ekuhwebeni kwangaphakathi noma iyiphi imfuneko ephathelene nokufakwa kophawu kokuthi ngabe ukudla (kufaka phakathi ukudla okuhlinzekwa endaweni yokudlela noma endaweni efanayo) noma imbewu kwenziwa ngofuzo (okuzofaka amanye amagama afanayo njengoba kunqunywe yi Unobhala Wezolimo) noma yathuthukiswa noma yakhiqizwa kusetshenziswa ubunjiniyela, kufaka phakathi noma yisiphi isidingo sezicelo zokuthi ukudla noma imbewu inesithako esakhiwe noma esikhiqizwe kusetshenziswa ubunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo. ”).

12 Bheka, isib. Ugesi & Elec. I-Co v. State Energy Res. Ukulondolozwa & I-Dev. I-Comm 'n, I-461 US 190,212 ("[T] uhulumeni wobumbano uthathe yonke imikhakha yezokuphepha kwezenuzi, ngaphandle kwamandla alinganiselwe ahlinzekelwe amatende [S].").

  • n Bona, isib, 21 USC 903 (”Akukho ukuhlinzekwa kwalesi sigaba esincane okuzothathwa njengokukhombisa inhloso yoKhongolose ukungena emkhakheni lapho leyo nhlinzeko isebenza khona, kubandakanya nezinhlawulo zobugebengu, ukukhiphela ngaphandle kwanoma imuphi umthetho woMbuso odabeni olufanayo olungeke luthathwe. ngaphandle kwalokho ube ngaphansi kwegunya loMbuso, ngaphandle kwalapho kukhona

Isigaba 10114 (b) soMthethosivivinywa we-Fann ka-2018 sigcwalisa incazelo yokuvikela ukungqubuzana ngoba umthetho woMbuso owenqabela ukuthutha okuphakathi noma ukuthunyelwa kwemikhiqizo ye-hemp noma ye-hemp ekhiqizwe ngokuhambisana nesihlokwana G se-AMA kuzoba kungqubuzana ngqo ne · isigaba 10114 (b), esihlinzeka ngokuthi akukho Zwe elingavimba imisebenzi enjalo.14 Ngakho-ke, noma yimuphi umthetho woMbuso onqunyelwe yiCongress. Umphumela ofanayo usebenza ezizweni zamaNdiya.15

Sekukonke, uma imigomo yokusebenzisa ishicilelwe, izizwe zaseMelika nezaseNdiya angeke zikwenqekele ukuthunyelwa ngokusemthethweni kwe-hemp ngokusemthethweni ngaphansi kwepulani likaHulumeni noma lobuzwe noma ngaphansi kwelayisense elikhishwe ngaphansi kohlelo loMnyango.

C.            I-Stlites kanye ne-Indian Tribes Kungase Kungavimbeli Ukuthuthwa Kwamazwe Ngamazwe Noma Ukuthunyelwa Kwempahla Ekhiqizwe Ngokomthetho Ngaphansi Komthetho Wezolimo we-2014.

Ngoba i-2018 Fmm Bill ayikususi ngokushesha igunya lomshayeli we-hemp ku-2014 Farm Bill § 7606 - futhi ngoba ukushicilelwa kwemithetho yokuqalisa ukusebenza kokuhlinzekwa kwe-hemp koMthethosivivinywa we-Fann ka-2018 kungenzeka kungenzeki kuze kube kamuva ku-2019-umbuzo uphakama ukuthi ngabe iZizwe. futhi izizwe zamaNdiya zivinjelwe ukuvimba ukuthuthwa kwamanye amazwe noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp (kufaka phakathi imikhiqizo ye-hemp) eyenziwe ngokusemthethweni ngaphansi koMthethosivivinywa we-2014 Fmm. Impendulo incike encazelweni yebinzana elithi “ngokuya ngesihlokwana G se-Agricultural MarketingActof1946 ″ in2018FmmBill § 10114 (b) (7U.SC § 1639onote). I-hemp kuphela ekhiqizwe ngokuhambisana nesihlokwana G embozwe ilungiselelo lokulungiselela okukhulunywe ngalo ngenhla. Njengoba kuchaziwe ngezansi, kungumbono wami ukuthi impendulo yalo mbuzo inguyebo, ngokusebenza kwe-AMA § 297B (f).

I-AMA§ 297B (f) isho umphumela osemthethweni wezinhlinzeko ezigunyaza amazwe aseMelika kanye nezizwe zamaNdiya ukuthuthukisa amasu wokusebenzisa igunya lokulawula i-primmy phezu kukhiqizwe i-hemp kuleyo Nhlangano noma indawo yesizwe samaNdiya. Ngokukhethekile, isigaba 297B (f) sihlinzeka:

(f) I-EFFECT.-Akukho lutho kulesi sigaba esenqabela ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp eMbusweni noma emugqeni wesizwe samaNdiya-

(!) okunguhlelo lukaHulumeni noma lwezobuzwe olungavunyelwe ngaphansi kwalesi sigaba, uma ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp kuhambisana nesigaba 297C noma eminye imithetho ye-Federal (kufaka phakathi imithetho); futhi

(2) uma ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp kungavinjelwe ngenye indlela yisizwe noma isizwe samaNdiya.

ukungqubuzana okuhle phakathi kwaleyo nhlinzeko yalesi siqeshana kanye nalowo mthetho woMbuso ukuze laba bobabili bangemi ndawonye njalo. ”).

14 Ngenye indlela, isigaba 10114 (b) singabhekwa njengesihlinzekelo sokuxolelwa okucacisiwe ngoba umthetho uhoxisa amandla e-State State ngokunqabela ukuthutha noma ukuthunyelwa kwemikhiqizo ye-hemp noma ye-hemp ngoMbuso.

15 I-AMA§ I-297B (a) (3) iqukethe ukuhlinzekwa kokulwa nokukhululwa okusho ukuthi akukho lutho ku-§ 297B (a) "olwela noma olukhawulela noma imuphi umthetho woMbuso noma wesizwe samaNdiya" Olawula ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp "futhi" ulukhuni kakhulu kune [isihlokwana G] .11 TU.SC § J639p (a) (3). Kodwa-ke, lokho kuhlinzekelwa kokulwa nokukhululwa kukhawulelwe ku- production ye-hemp - hhayi i- ezokuthutha noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp- futhi ngenxa yalokho ayingqubuzani ne-2018 Farm Bill§ IOI14 (b).

7 I-USC § I-1639p (f) (kugcizelelwa).

Lokhu kuhlinzekelwa kubhekela ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp endaweni yoMbuso noma Yobuzwe lapho uMbuso noma isizwe singenayo uhlelo oluvunyiwe ngaphansi kwe-AMA § 297B. Lokhu kuhlinzekwa kwamukela ukuthi, esimweni esinjalo, ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp kuleso Sifundazwe noma i-Tribal teITitory kusabonakala kuze kube manje uma kukhiqizwa noma ngokuya ngecebo loMnyango ngaphansi kwe-AMA § 297C or ngokuya ngeminye imithetho ye-Federal, futhi uMbuso noma isizwe akuvimbi ngenye indlela ukukhiqizwa kwawo.

Ulimi olulula lwesihlokwana G se-AMA, njengoba lungezwe yi-2018 Farm Bill, ngakho-ke lucacisa ngokusobala i-scenaricf'in lapho i-hemp ingakhiqizwa ngaphansi kohlelo olugunyaziwe lwe-297B noma ngaphansi kwelayisense ekhishwe ngaphansi kohlelo loMnyango lwe-297C, kepha namanje kukhiqizwa ngokusemthethweni ngaphansi

"Neminye imithetho yaseFederal." Kungumqondo wami ukuthi “eminye imithetho yaseFederal” ifaka phakathi uBill Farm wase-2014

  • 7606.16

Ngokwazi kwami, ngaphambi kokumiswa kwe-2014 Farm Bill§ 7606, i-CSA kwakuwukuphela komthetho weFederal owawugunyaza ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp. Ngempela, ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp- “njengokwenziwa” kohlelo lokulawula izinto engangilawula ngalo - ngokuvamile kwakwenqatshelwa ngaphansi kwe-CSA ngaphandle kwezinga eligunyazwe ngaphansi kokubhaliswa noma ukuyekelwa ngaphansi kwe-CSA. Bona 21 I-USC

  • § 802 (15), 802 (22), 822, kanye no-823; 21 CFR paJt 1301. Ngokunikezwa (1) ukususwa kwe-hemp njengezinto ezilawulwayo ngaphansi kwe-CSA, (2) ukubuyiselwa kokubambezeleka kwegunya le-2014 Fann Bill§ 7606, kanye (3) nokumiswa kweziphathimandla ezintsha zokukhiqiza ze-hemp kumibhalo engezansi G we-AMA, kungumbono wami ukuthi "eminye imithetho yaseFederal" ibhekisa ezinhlinzweni ze-2014 Farm Bill
  • 7606, ezisasebenza namanje. Ukuhumusha okunjalo kunika amandla umusho othi “eminye imithetho yaseFederal” ngokushesha. "Kuyisimiso esiyinhloko sokuchazwa okufanele senziwe yi-couJts. Umphumela, uma kungenzeka, kuzo zonke izigaba zomthetho negama lomthetho." Bona, isib, i-Loughrin v. United States, I-573 US 351, 358 (2014) (izingcaphuno zangaphakathi nezicaphuno)). ·

Ngakho-ke, ukufunda i-AMA§ 297B (f) ngokuvumelana ne-2018 Faim Bill§ 10114 (b), uma i-hemp ikhiqizwa ngokusemthethweni ngokuya nge-2014 Farm Bill§ 7606 ("omunye umthetho we-Federal"), yi-viJtue ye-AMA § 297B (f), ukukhiqizwa kwayo akuvunyelwe. I-hemp enjalo ibizokhiqizwa "ngokuhambisana nesihlokwana G," esikhuluma ngqo nge-scenaifo enjalo, njenge-AMA

  • I-297B (f) iyingxenye yesihlokwana G. Ngokuvumelana nalokho, ngaphansi kuka-2018 Farm Bill§ 10114 (b), uMbuso noma umNdiya

16 Ukuthi iCongress ibone isimo esinjalo ibonakala inikezwe lolu limi ngonyaka we-2018 Fann Bill§ 7605 (b} ukubambezela ukuhoxiswa kuka -2014 Ipulazi iBill§ 7606 kuze kube izinyanga eziyi-12 ngemuva uNobhala usungula uhlelo lwama-297C. Ngokunjalo, lokhu kuchazwa kwenombolo akuvinjelwe i-AMA§ 1C (c) (l), enikezela: “[i] n endabeni yoMbuso noma isizwe samaNdiya lapho uhlelo lukaHulumeni noma lweSizwe lungavunyelwe ngaphansi kwesigaba 297B, kube emthethweni ukukhiqiza i-hemp kuleso Sifundazwe noma indawo eyishumi yesizwe samaNdiya ngaphandle kwelayisensi ekhishwe uNobhala ngaphansi kwesigatshana (b). ” Njengoba kunikezwe ireferensi "noma eminye imithetho ye-Federal" ku-AMA § 297B (f) (l) - nokuthi i-297 Farm Bill§ 2014 isasebenza

- kungaba ukufundwa okungenangqondo kwe-AMA §297C (c) (J) ukuphetha ngokuthi i-hemp ekhiqizwa ngokuhambisana nomthetho we-Federal (2014 Fann Bill § 7606), ngesikhathi esifanayo, ayikho emthethweni ngaphandle kwelayisensi ehlukile ekhishwe uNobhala ngaphansi kohlelo lwama-297C. Njengoba ama-com1s abonwa isikhathi eside, izincazelo ezisemthethweni ezisemthethweni “ezikhiqiza imiphumela engenangqondo kufanele kuthinteka ukuhumusha okusetshenziswayo okuhambisana nenhloso yomthetho kuyatholakala. ” UGriffin v. Oc_eanic Osonkontileka, Inc., 458 US 564,575 (1982).

Isizwe asikwazi ukuvimbela ukuhanjiswa noma ukuthunyelwa kwalokho okubizwa nge- "01 Farm Bill hemp" kuleyo ndawo yoMbuso noma yeSizwe.17

Okuthuthukile Kwamuva

Ngiyavuma ukuthi lesi siphetho sisenkingeni nesinqumo sakamuva ecaleni eliseSifundeni sase-Idaho, kepha futhi siyahambisana nesinqumo sakamuva ecaleni eliseSifundeni Saseningizimu saseWest Virginia. Ayikho inkantolo ebhekise olimini "lweminye imithetho yeFederal" ku-AMA § 297B (f) (l), engikuthola kuphelele.

In IBig Sky Science Science LLC v. Jdaho State Police, Icala No. 19-CV-00040 (D. Idaho), ijaji likamantshi lithole ukuthi ukuthunyelwa kwe-OregoI1 hemp ebheke eColorado futhi kuvinjelwe amaphoyisa ase-Idaho State bekungeke kudalulwe “ngokuhambisana nombhalo ongezansi G” ngoba uMbuso imvelaphi ayinalo uhlelo oluvunyiwe rn1der AMA § 297B futhi uNobhala akakasunguli uhlelo ngaphansi kwe-AMA § 297C.18 Imantshi ivumile umthetho we-Oregon ogunyaza ukutshala i-hemp, iphawula ukuthi u-hemp wakhiqizwa ngumlimi onikezwe ilayisensi nguMnyango wezoLimo wase-Oregon (futhi, ngenxa yalokho, ngokuhambisana nezidingo ze-Fann Bill§ ezingama-2014 ka-7606.19 Kodwa-ke, ngokwenqaba isimangalo sabamangali sokuthola isinqumo sokuqala, imantshi · iphethe ngokuthi, ekwenzeni umthetho we-2018 Farm Bill, iCongress ihlose "ukudala uhlaka lokulawula ezungeze ukukhiqizwa kanye nokuhanjiswa kwangaphakathi kwe-hemp kubaphikisi bomthetho wesifundazwe, kanye nalolo hlaka izotholakala ohlelweni lukahulumeni (noma oluvumelana nemithetho [S] tate noma lwe- [T] ribal) lokukhiqizwa kwe-hemp olutholakala kuMthethosivivinywa we-2018 Fmm. ”20 Yize uMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 uvumela ukuthi i-hemp idluliselwe emigqeni yoMbuso, imantshi yahlawula zonke lezo zivikelo zezentengiselwano ezisetshenziswayo zisebenza kuphela kwi-hemp ekhiqizwe ngaphansi kwemithetho emenyezelwe ngaphansi kwegunya loMthetho Wezolimo wase-111 Ngakho-ke, ngoba leyo mithethonqubo ayikabikho, i-hemp evimbelayo ingaphansi komthetho we-Idaho owenqabela ukudluliswa kwayo.

I-USDA akuyona i-pmty ku Isibhakabhaka esikhulu icala, futhi leli hhovisi alivumelani nokucatshangelwa kwemantshi mayelana nokuhanjiswa kwe-hemp ngokusemthethweni okukhishwe ngaphansi koMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2014. In

17 Lesi siphetho sibonakala sisekelwa nasemlandweni wezomthetho. Lapho ichaza umphumela wokuhlinzekwa kokukhokhelwa, i-Conference Report ithi: “Ngenkathi amathe [amaS] nezizwe zamaNdiya zinganciphisa ukukhiqizwa nokuthengiswa kwemikhiqizo ye-hemp ne-hemp ngaphakathi kwemingcele yabo, abaphathi, ku-Sec. U-10112, uvumile ukungavumeli [amaSate] nezizwe zamaNdiya ukuthi zikhawulele ukuthuthwa noma ukuthunyelwa kwemikhiqizo ye-hemp noma ye-hemp ngokusebenzisa it [S] tate noma Indian territ01y. ” I-HR REP. Cha. 115-1072, ku-738 (2018). Ngokuphawulekayo, abaphathi babhekisele ku-hemp ngokuvamile, hhayi nje i-hemp ekhiqizwa ngaphansi kohlelo olwenziwe ngaphansi kwesihlokwana G se-AMA.

18 Bona i-Big Sky, ECF Doc. # 32, Isinqumo seMemorandum ne-oda Re: Amaphikseli Enkuthazo Yokuqala; bona futhi ECF Doc. # 6, Isinqumo seMemorandum ne-oda Re: Isikhalazo Sezimo eziphuthumayo ze-Plaintiffs Order Yesikhashana Sokubuyiselwa Kwesikhashana kanye nesehlakalo sangaphambi kokuqokwa kanye ne-Plaintiffs Motion eya ku-File Overlength Brief (itholakala ku- I-2019 WL 438336 (Februwari 2, 2019).

19 I-Big Sky, ECF Doc. # 32, ngo-5, 7-8.

20 Umazisi ku-3.

21 Umazisi ngo-19-26.

Ekuhumusheni ulimi olusemthethweni, imantshi iphawule kahle umthetho owaziwa kahle wokwakhiwa komthetho wokuthi izimiso akufanele zihunyushwe “ngendlela enikeza ezinye izinhlinzeko zomthetho ofanayo ezingqubuzanayo, ezingenangqondo, noma ezingekho emthethweni.” 1 Kodwa-ke, kubonakala sengathi uyakushaya indiva lokho umthetho oqondisayo wokuhumusha, imantshi ayizange ibhekane nomphumela wolimi "lweminye imithetho ye-Federal" ku-AMA § 22B (f) noma izame ukunika lolo limi noma iyiphi incazelo. Inkantolo yase-Idaho yehlulekile ukufunda umthetho wonkana futhi ayizange ibheke umbandela “weminye imithetho yeFederal” engiwuthola uphelele. Ngenxa yesinqumo sokuqala semantshi, ngibona umbono wakhe uphika umyalo wokuqala ungacaci.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukuhunyushwa kwe-2018 Farm Bill § 10114 ethuthukiswe ngulo mbono wezomthetho kuyahambisana nesinqumo esikhishwe eSifundeni EsiseNingizimu Ntshonalanga Virginia. In I-United States v. Mallory, Icala No. 18-CV-1289 (SDW Va.), I-Oepmtment of Justice yafaka enkantolo icala lokuthatha i-hemp okusolwa ukuthi ikhule ngokungahambisani ne-CSA futhi nangaphandle kwesilinganiso soMthethosivivinywa we-Fann ka-2014. Kuleso simo-ke lelo cala lalikhule ngokuhlanzekile ngumkhiqizi onikezwe ilayisense yi-State of West Virginia ngaphansi kohlelo lomshayeli we-2014 Fmm Bill§ 7606, lapho imbewu ye-hemp yathunyelwa isuka kumthengisi waseKentucky eyayelayisensiwe yiCommonwealth yaseKentucky ngaphansi koMthethosivivinywa Wepulazi lowezi-2014

  • Uhlelo lokushayela olungu-7606. Inkantolo ithembele enhlanganisweni yemithetho - uMthethosivivinywa Wokulima Wango-2014, ukwabiwa kwemali kwenza izinhlinzeko, 24 kanye noMthethosivivinywa Wokulima Wezolimo ngo-2018 - ukuqeda umyalo wokuqala kummangalelwa kanye nokuchitha ngokuphelele icala likahulumeni. 25 Ekuqedeni umyalo wokuqala , inkantolo yanikeza abamangalelwa icala lokuhambisa umkhiqizo we-hemp emigqeni yoMbuso baye ePennsylvania ukuyolungiswa nokuthengiswa

Nakuba Mallory inkantolo ibingenaso isikhathi sokubhekana nanoma yimiphi imizamo yoMbuso yokuvimba ukuthuthwa kwe-hemp, inkantolo ibhekisele ku-2018 Fmm Bill § 10114, iqaphela ukuthi "ivumela ngokusobala ukuthi imikhiqizo ye-hemp, imbewu yayo kanye ne-hemp, etholwayo ithuthwe iwele imigqa yoMbuso. ”28 Umbono wejaji lesifunda ukhulume nge-hemp ekhiqizwe ngaphansi kuka-2014 Fann Bill§ 7606 hhayi i-hemp ekhiqizwa ngaphansi kwezinhlelo zoMbuso, Zesizwe, noma Zikahulumeni. Isiphetho esifinyelelwe yi Abongile inkantolo iyahambisana nokubaluleka kwami ​​okuphelele kokuthi iMelika ngeke ivimbele ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp, noma

22 Umazisi ku-21-22 (ekhononda v Padash. I.NS., I-258 F.3d ll61, 1170-71 (9th Cir. 2004)). Imantshi yaqhubeka:

Kungumgomo oyinhloko wokwakhiwa kwezibalo okufanele umthetho, phezu kwawo wonke, kube njalo kuthathe lokho, uma it kungavinjelwa, akukho sigatshana, umusho, noma igama eliyodlula konke, lingabi nalutho, noma engabalulekile. … Kungumsebenzi wethu ukwenza, uma kungenzeka, kuzo zonke izigaba zomthetho negama lomthetho.

Umazisi ku-23 (izingcaphuno zangaphakathi nezikhombo ezishiywe).

23 Ngempela, umbango wemantshi ungaphansi kwesikhalazo. Bheka I-Big Sky Sci. I-LLC v. Bennetts, Icala No. 19-35138 (9th Cir.).

24 Bheka Supra umbhalo waphansi 10.

25 Mal / olJ ', ECF Doc. # 60, Imemorandum Opinion and Order, 2019 WL 252530 (SDW Va. Jan. 17, 2019).

26 Mal / yami, I-BCF Doc. # 72, Imemorandum Opinion and Order, 2019 WL 1061677 (SDW Va. Mar. 6, 2019).

27 Mal / o, y, I-BCF Doc. # 60, 2019 WL 252530, ku- * 3.

28 I-Mallory, I-BCF Doc. # 72, 2019 WL 1061677, at * I-6:

Ikhasi 12

ukuthi i-hemp ikhiqizwa ngaphansi koMthethosivivinywa we-Faim ka-2014 noma ngaphansi kohlelo lukaHulumeni, lweSizwe, noma loMnyango w1der the 2018 Farm Bill. Futhi kuyisinqumo sokugcina senkomo eseNingizimu yeSifunda saseWest Virginia, futhi hhayi isinqumo sokuqala njengokusho kombono wemantshi yesiFunda sase-aldaho.29

Ezindabeni zokuchazwa ngokusemthethweni, umbhalo wesimiso uyabusa. Umuntu kufanele awufunde wonke lowo mbhalo bese unikeza i-eve1y incazelo yegama. Ukubhekiswa "kweminye imithetho yaseFederal" kumele kunikezwe incazelo, futhi lolo limi lukhomba ngokusobala umthetho weFederal njengamanje ogunyaza ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp - 2014 Fann Bill § 7606. Ngakho-ke, i-hemp ekhiqizwa ngaphansi kwalelo gunya lomshayeli yi-hemp ekhiqizwa ngokuhambisana isihlokwana G se-AMA. Izizwe nezizwe zaseNdiya akumele zikwenqabele ukuhanjiswa noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp enjalo ngaleyo ndawo yoMbuso noma yeTribal. ·

D.           Imikhawulo Yezindawo Zepulazi Yezindawo Zonyaka we-2018 ekukhiqizweni kweHemp ngamaFelon athile.

UMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 wengeze ukuhlinzekwa okusha okukhuluma ngamandla ekhono lezigebengu eziboshiwe zokukhiqiza i-hemp. UMthethosivivinywa Wefaim ka-2014 awuthethi ngalolu daba. I-AMA§ 297B (e) (3) (B) (ngemuva kwalokhu, "Ukuhlinzekwa kwe-Felony"), njengoba kungezwe yi-2018 Farm Bill, inikeza:

(B) FELONY.—

  • NGOKUPHAKATHI-Ngaphandle kokuthi kuhlinzekelwe esigatshaneni (ii), noma yimuphi umuntu olahlwe yicala lokukhulunywa ngokuhlobene ne into elawulwayo ngaphansi komthetho woMbuso noma weFederal · ngaphambili, ngomhla, noma emuva usuku lokuqalisa kwalokhu isihlokwana izothuthukiswa, ngesikhathi seminyaka engu-I0 kulandela usuku lokugwetshwa-

(!) ukubamba iqhaza kuhlelo olusungulwe ngaphansi kwalesi sigaba noma isigaba 297C; futhi

(II) ukukhiqiza i-hemp ngaphansi kwanoma yiziphi izimiso noma imihlahlandlela ekhishwe ngaphansi kwesigaba 297D (a).

  • -Igatshana (i) angeke lisebenze kunoma yimuphi umuntu okhula ngokusemthethweni nelayisense, ukubhaliswa, · noma ukugunyazwa ngaphansi kohlelo lokushayela olugunyazwe isigaba 7606 sezoLimo Isenzo sika -2014 (7 USC 5940) ngaphambili usuku lokubhaliswa kwalesi sihloko.

7 USC § l 639p (e) (3) (B) (kugcizelelwe). Izinkomba “ngosuku lokumiswa kwalo mbhalo ongezansi” kufanele kube isihlokwana esingu-G se-AMA, njengoba sengezwe yisigaba 10113 sowe-2018 uFann Bill. Ngakho-ke, "usuku lokushaywa kwalesi sihlokwana" usuku lokukhishwa koMthethosivivinywa weFama wezi-2018 ngoDisemba 20, 2018.

Lapho sichaza ukuhlinzekwa kukaFelony, Umbiko Wenkomfa uphawula:

Noma yimuphi umuntu owatholakala enecala lokuhlobene nentengiso elawulwa yinto ethile ngeke akwazi ukubamba iqhaza ngaphansi kohlelo lwe- [S] noma lwethala le-T lokuphela konyaka we-JO emva kosuku lokugwetshwa. Kodwa-ke, lokhu kwenqatshwa ngeke kusebenze kubakhiqizi abake babambelela ngokusemthethweni ohlelweni [lwe-S] lwezinhlelo zokushayela i-hemp njengoba kugunyazwe ngumthetho wezoLimo wowezi-2014, ngaphambi kokuqalisa kwalesi sihloko. Ukukholwa okulandelayo ngemuva kosuku lokuqokwa kwalesi sihloko kuzobangela unyaka o-0

29 I-Mallory, I-BCF Doc. # 72, 2019 WL l 06 I677, ku- * 9 (ukuphika isiphakamiso se-United States sokuchibiyela nokunikeza isiphakamiso sabamangalelwa ukuba basichithe). I-Big Sky, I-BCF Doc. # 32, ku-28 (ukuphika ukunyakaziswa kwesimangalo se-preliminaiy sindiswa futhi uphawula ukuthi i-comt izokhipha ngokwahlukile i-oda elibeka inkomfa yokuhlela ukuphatha icala liya phambili).

Ikhasi 13

isikhathi sokungahlanganyeli noma ngabe umakhiqizi wabamba iqhaza ohlelweni lokushayela olugunyazwe ngonyaka we-2014.

I-HR REP. Cha. 115-1072, ku-737 (2018).

Ngokuphelele, umuntu olahlwe yicala loMbuso noma le-Federal elihlobene nento elawulwayo - noma ngabe leso sigwebo senzeka nini - akavumelekile ukukhiqiza i-hemp ngaphansi kwesihlokwana G se-AMA isikhathi seminyaka eyi-i0 kulandela usuku lokugwetshwa. Okuhlukile kukhona esigatshaneni (ii) sokuhlinzekwa kwe-Felony esisebenza kumuntu owayekhiqiza ngokusemthethweni i-hemp ngaphansi koMthethosivivinywa we-Farm 2014 ngaphambi kukaDisemba 20, 2018, futhi ngubani owake walahlwa yicala elihlobene nento elawulwayo ngaphambi kwalolo suku. Izizwe nezizwe zaseNdiya manje sekunesibopho] Isibopho sokunquma ukuthi ngabe umuntu ofisa ukukhiqiza i-hemp kulokho kudliwa noma indawo ye-Tribal unezinkolelo ezithile zeFederal noma zoMbuso ezihlobene nezinto ezilawulwayo ezingenza lowo muntu angafaneleki ukukhiqiza i-hemp.

  • EMINYE ISIHLOKO

Kunezici ezimbili ezibalulekile zalolu daba okufanele zigcizelelwe.

Okokuqala, uMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 ugcina igunya leMelika kanye nezizwe zaseNdiya zokusebenzisa nokuqinisa · imithetho elawula ukwenziwa kwe-hemp enamathele kakhulu kunasemthethweni weFederal. Bona AMA

  • 297B (a) (3) (7 USC § 1639p (a) (3)) (”Akukho lutho kulesi sigatshana esivivinya noma silinganise noma imuphi umthetho woMbuso noma wesizwe samaNdiya… (i) olawula ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp; futhi (ii) ) kuqinile kunalesi sihlokwana. ”). Isibonelo, uMbuso ungaqhubeka nokuvimbela ukukhula noma ukutshalwa kwe-hemp kuleso Sifundazwe. 30 Njengoba kushiwo ngenhla, noma kunjalo, ngenkathi uHulumeni noma isizwe samaNdiya singavimbela ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp, kungenzeka singavimbeli ukuthunyelwa kwangaphakathi kwe-hemp yenziwe ngokuya komthetho weFederal.

Okwesibili, uMthethosivivinywa we-Faim ka-2018 awuthinti noma uguqule igunya likaNobhala Wezempilo kanye Nezinsizakalo Zabantu ("uNobhala weHHS" ·) noma uKhomishani Wezokudla Nezidakamizwa ("FDA · · Commissioner") ngaphansi kweFederal Food, Drug, kanye Umthetho Wezimonyo (21 USC § 301 et seq.) Kanye nesigaba 351 soMthetho Wezinsizakalo Zezempilo Zomphakathi (42 USC § 262). Bona I-AMA§ 297D (c) (7 USC

  • 1639r (c)). Ngenkathi i-AMA§ 297D (b) ihlinzeka ukuthi uNobhala Wezolimo uzoba "negunya elilodwa" lokukhipha imithethonqubo neziqondiso zeFederal eziphathelene nokukhiqizwa kwe-hemp; leli gunya lingaphansi kwegunya likaNobhala we-HHS noKhomishani we-FDA ukumemezela imithetho neziqondiso ze-Federal ngaphansi kwaleyo mithetho ye-FDA. 7 USC § 1639r (b).

3 ° Izifundazwe ezithile ziyaqhubeka nokwenqabela ukutshala i-hemp.  Bona Ingqungquthela Kazwelonke Yezishayamthetho Zikahulumeni, ”State Indu trial Hemp Statutes,” etholakala ku- http:// www.Ama-11cs l. i-org  /ucwaningo  h/ agriculTure-futhi-rural-Ukusungulwa / isimo-· indus trial-hEMP-statutes.aspx # stwadla (ivuselelwe ngoFebhuwari I, 2019).

  1. ISIPHETHO 

Ngicubungulile ukunikezwa kwe-hemp okwenziwe njenge-patt yoMthethosivivinywa we-Fann we-2018 futhi ngafinyelela iziphetho ezilandelayo:

  1. Mayelana nokwenziwa koMthethosivivinywa We-Fatm we-2018 ngoDisemba 20, 2018, i-hemp isusiwe kuhlelo I lwe-CSA futhi ayisalawulwa
  2. Ngemuva kokuthi i-USDA ishicilele imithethonqubo yokuqalisa kokuhlinzekwa kwe-hemp yoMthethosivivinywa ka-2018 we-Fatm oqukethwe kumibhalo engezansi ka-G we-AMA, Izizwe kanye nezizwe zaseNdiya kungenzeka zingavimbeli ukuthunyelwa kwamazwe angaphandle kwe-tl1e noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp okwenziwe ngokusemthethweni ngaphansi kohlelo lwezwe noma lesizwe noma ngaphansi kwelayisensi ekhishiwe ngaphansi kwe-Depattmental                             i;
  3. Izizwe zase-United States nezaseNdiya kungenzeka zingakwenqabeli ukuthutha okuphakathi noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp okusemthethweni okukhishwe ngokusemthethweni
  4. Umuntu onecala loMbuso noma i-Federal felony elihlobene nento elawulwayo ingaphansi komkhawulo weminyaka engu-10 wokungakwazi ukwenziwa amandla okukhiqiza i-hemp ngaphansi kwesihlokwana G se-AMA. Ukuhluka kuyasebenza kumuntu owayekhula ngokusemthethweni i-hemp ngaphansi koMthethosivivinywa Wepulazi lowezi-2014 ngaphambi kukaDisemba 20, 2018, nokugwetshwa kwakhe futhi kwenzeka ngaphambi kwalolo suku.

Umthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 ugcina igunya leMelika kanye nezizwe zamaNdiya zokusebenzisa futhi zisebenzise imithetho elawula ukwenziwa kwe-hemp okuwumthetho olandelanayo kwe-Federal. Ngokungeziwe, i-ilie 2018 Farm Bill ayithinti noma iguqule igunya loNgqongqoshe weHHS noma weKhomishini ye-FDA ukulawula i-hemp ngaphansi kwemithetho esebenzayo ye-FDA.

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Usebenza KANJANI UMTHETHO OWENGEZIWE Kokufudukela Kwelinye Izwe Kunobudlelwano obubaluleke kakhulu phakathi kokufuduka kanye noMTHETHO OWENGEZIWE, ongagcizelelwanga. UMTHETHO OWENGEZIWE ubeka ushintsho olufanelekile emphakathini we-cannabis. Umthethosivivinywa osusa insangu emthethweni ...

I-Arizona Marijuana Establishment License

I-Arizona Marijuana Establishment License

I-Arizona Marijuana Establishment License I-Arizona Marijuana Establishment Licence iyimpendulo yalabo abanesifiso sokuqala ibhizinisi lensangu kuhulumeni. Noma ngabe ufuna ukuvula i-dispensary e-Arizona, noma uqale ukukhiqiza noma ukusabalalisa ibhizinisi ku ...

Udinga Ummeli Wensangu Ebhizinisini Lakho?

Abameli bethu bebhizinisi le-cannabis nabo bangabaninimabhizinisi. Singakusiza ukuthi uhlele ibhizinisi lakho noma sisize ekulivikele emithethweni esindayo ngokweqile.

ummeli wezimboni ze-cannabis

316 SW Washington St, ISuite 1A Peoria,
I-IL 61602, e-USA
Sishayele 309-740-4033 || Sithumele i-imeyili tom@collateralbase.com

ummeli wezimboni ze-cannabis

I-150 S. Wacker Drayivu,
ISuite 2400 Chicago IL, 60606, e-USA
Sishayele 312-741-1009 || Sithumele i-imeyili tom@collateralbase.com

ummeli wezimboni ze-cannabis

316 SW Washington St, ISuite 1A Peoria,
I-IL 61602, e-USA
Sishayele 309-740-4033 || Sithumele i-imeyili tom@collateralbase.com

ummeli wezimboni ze-cannabis

I-150 S. Wacker Drayivu,
ISuite 2400 Chicago IL, 60606, e-USA
Sishayele 312-741-1009 || Sithumele i-imeyili tom@collateralbase.com

ummeli wezimboni ze-cannabis

316 SW Washington St, Peoria,
I-IL 61602, e-USA
Sishayele (309) 306-1095 || e-mail Us tom@collateralbase.com
Izindaba Zemboni Yensangu

Izindaba Zemboni Yensangu

Bhalisela futhi uthole kwakamuva embonini yensangu. Kufaka okuqukethwe okukhethekile okwabiwe kuphela nababhalisile.

Uphumelele ukubhalisela!

Yabelana Lokhu