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I-USDA Hemp Memo

I-USDA HEMP Memo - Umbhalo Ogcwele

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Ngezansi kweMemo ephelele ye-USDA Hemp:

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UnitedStates uMnyango Wezolimolture

Ihhovisi le-the Umeluleki Jikelele

Washington D.C.

2025 0-1400

GeneRALCOUNSEL

Kwangathi 28, 2019

MEMORANDUM

ISIHLOKO:

ISIFUNDO SOKUQOPHA SEZIMALI ZESIMEMO SAMAHHALA

NgoDisemba 20, 2018, uMongameli Trnmp.sethathe umthetho umthetho wezoLimo ngokuThuthukiswa kwezoLimo ka-2018, uPub. L. 115-334 (Umthetho Wezolimo wase-2018). Umthethosivivinywa Wepulazi Lezolimo lowama-2018 usemthethweni ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp kuzo zonke izinhloso ngaphakathi kwamapharamitha abekwe kusimiso.

IHhovisi le-General Counsel (OGC) likhiphe umbono osemthethweni onamathiselwe ukulungisa imibuzo mayelana ne-sev. Izinhlinzeko ezihlobene ne-hemp ezihlobene noMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018, kufaka phakathi: isigaba-sokuphuma kweziphathimandla zokushayela i-hemp yezimboni kuMthetho wezoLimo wonyaka we-2014 (Umthetho Wezolimo wase-2014) (Isigaba 7605); Isichibiyelo soMthetho Wezokumaketha Kwezolimo wango-1946 ukuvumela amazwe aseMelika naseNdiya ukuthi alawule ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp noma alandele uhlelo loMnyango wezoLimo (i-USDA) olawula ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp (Isigaba 10113); ilungiselelo eliqinisekisa ukuhamba kwe-hemp kwamahhala kwezentengiselwano yangaphakathi (Isigaba 10114); kanye nokususwa kwe-hemp kuMthetho Okulawulwayo Wezinto (Isigaba 12619).

Iziphetho ezibalulekile zombono wezomthetho we-OGC yilezi ezilandelayo:

  1. Mayelana nokwenziwa koMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 ngoDisemba 20, 2018, i-hemp isusiwe ohlelweni I lwe-Controlled Sub zinthu Act futhi ayisaseyona into elawulwayo.
  2. Ngemuva kokuthi i-USDA ishicilele izimiso ezisebenzisa izinhlinzeko ezintsha zokukhiqizwa kwe-hemp yoMthethosivivinywa we-Fa2018m ka-1 oqukethwe kuMthetho Wezokumaketha Kwezolimo wango-1946, Izizwe zaseMelika kanye nezaseNdiya angeke zikwenqabe ukuhanjiswa okuphakathi noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp ngokusemthethweni kwenziwe ngaphansi kohlelo loMbuso noma lweNhlangano noma ngaphansi kwelayisense. ikhishwe ngaphansi kwe-USDA
  3. Izizwe zaseMelika nezamaNdiya nazo angeke zenqabele ukuhamba phakathi noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp ngokusemthethweni okukhishwe ngokusemthethweni ngaphansi kwePulazi lango-2014
  4. Umuntu onecala loMbuso noma i-Federal felony elihlobene nento elawulwayo ungaphansi komkhawulo weminyaka engu-10 wokungakwazi ukwenziwa amandla okukhiqiza i-hemp ngaphansi koMthetho Wezentengiso Wezolimo we-Anction kusebenza ngaphandle komuntu owayekhula ngokusemthethweni i-hemp ngaphansi koMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2014 ngaphambi kukaDisemba 20, 2018, nokugwetshwa kwakhe kubuye kwenzeke ngaphambi kwalolo suku.

IMEMORANDUM Meyi 28, 2019

Ikhasi2

Ngokusebenza koMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018, i-hemp ingahle ikhule kuphela (I) nelayisense elikhishwe ngokuqondile le-USDA, (2) ngaphansi kohlelo olugunyazwe i-USDA State noma Tribal Tribal, noma (3) ngaphansi kwesiphathimandla sokushayela izindiza sezezimboni se-2014 Farm Bill. . Leso siphathimandla sokushayela izindiza sizophelelwa isikhathi ngonyaka owodwa ngemuva kokuthi i-USDA isungule uhlelo lokukhipha amalayisense e-USDA ngaphansi kokuhlinzekwa koMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018.

Kubalulekile ukuthi umphakathi uqaphele ukuthi uMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 ugcina igunya leMelika kanye nezizwe zamaNdiya ukwenza nokuqinisa imithetho elawula umthetho production ze-hemp eziqinile kunomthetho we-Federal. Ngakho-ke, ngenkathi izwe noma isizwe samaNdiya singakwazi ukuvimba ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp ngalowo Mbuso noma i-Tribal teRRitory, kungaqhubeka nokuphoqelela imithetho Yezwe noma Yobuzwe evimbela ukukhula kwe-hemp kuleso Sifundazwe noma i-Tribal teRRitory.

Kubalulekile futhi ukugcizelela ukuthi uMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 awuthinti noma uguqule igunya loNobhala Wezempilo Nezinsizakalo Zabantu noma kweKhomishani Yezokudla Nezidakamizwa ukulawula i-hemp ngaphansi kwemithetho esebenzayo yase-US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

I-USDA ilindele ukukhipha imithethonqubo esebenza ngeziphathimandla ezintsha zokukhiqiza i-hemp ngonyaka ka-2019.

UMnyango Wezolimo we-United States

IHhovisi loMeluleki Jikelele

Washington D.C.

20250-1400

STEPHEN ER VADEN

IKHOMISHINI JIKELELE

Kwangathi 28, 2019

IMEMORANDAMU YOKUZONWABISA ISONNY PERDUE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE

ISIHLOKO:

UKUVULWA KWEMITHETHO KWEMININININGWANE YOKUGCINWA KWEMITHETHO YOKUZIPHATHA KWEMPAHLA KA-2018

Lesi sikhumbuzo sihlinzeka ngombono wami wezomthetho mayelana nokuhlinzekwa kokuqala koMthetho Wokuthuthukiswa Kwezolimo we-1. (“Umthetho Wezolimo Wezolimo Wonyaka we-2018), Pu_b. L No. 2018-115, eziphathelene ne-hemp.

Njengoba kuchaziwe ngezansi, le Memorandamu iphetha i-follQwing:

  1. Ngokuphathelene nokwenziwa koMthethosivivinywa We-Fam2018 we-1 ngoDisemba 20, 2018, i-hemp isusiwe kusheduli I yoMthetho Okulawulwayo Wezinto (“CSA”) futhi ayisaseyona iHemp elilawulwayo echazwe ngaphansi koMthethosivivinywa we-Fa1m ka-2018 ukufaka noma iyiphi insangu isitshalo, noma okuphuma kuso, okungaquki ngamaphesenti angaphezu kwe-1 delta-0.3 tetrahydrocannabinol (“THC”) of a-weight weight.
  2. Ngemuva kokuthi iDephoitment of Agriculture (i- “USDA” noma i- “Depa1tment”) ishicilele imithetho ezosebenzisa izinhlinzeko zokukhiqizwa kwe-hemp kuMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 oqukethwe yisihlokwana G soMthetho Wezokumaketha KwezoLimo we-1946 (“AMA; '), izizwe kanye nezizwe zamaNdiya kwenqabela ukuthutha okuphakathi noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp ngokusemthethweni okukhishwe ngokusemthethweni ngaphansi kohlelo loMbuso noma lwezwe noma ngaphansi kwelayisense elikhishwe ngaphansi koMnyango
  3. Izizwe zase-United States nezaseNdiya azikwazi ukunqabela ukuthutha noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp ngokusemthethweni okukhishwe ngokusemthethweni ngaphansi koMthetho wezoLimo ka-2014 (“Umthetho Wezimali Wepulazi lowe-2014”).
  4. A Umuntu onecala loMbuso noma i-Federal felony elihlobene nento elawulwayo ingaphansi komkhawulo weminyaka eyishumi wokungakwazi ukwenziwa amandla okukhiqiza i-hemp ngaphansi kwesihlokwana G se-AMA. Ukuhluka kuyasebenza kumuntu owayekhula ngokusemthethweni i-hemp ngaphansi koMthethosivivinywa we-10 Frum Bill ngaphambi kukaDisemba 2014, 20, futhi nokukholwa kwakhe kwaqala ngaphambi kwalolo suku.

Lesi sikhumbuzo sibuye sigcizelele izici ezimbili ezibalulekile zoMhlinzeki Wezolimo wase-2018 ohlobene ne-hemp. Okokuqala, uMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 ugcina igunya leMelika kanye nezizwe zamaNdiya zokusebenzisa nokuqinisa imithetho elawula i production (kodwa hhayi ukuthutha kokuphakathi noma ukuthunyelwa) kwe-hemp okuqinile kakhulu kunomthetho we-Federal. Isibonelo, umthetho woMbuso ovimbela ukukhula noma ukutshala i-hemp ungaqhubeka nokuphoqelelwa yilowo Mbuso. Okwesibili, uMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 awuthinti noma uguqule igunya likaNobhala Wezempilo kanye Nezinsizakalo Zabantu noma uKhomishani Wezokudla Nezidakamizwa ngaphansi kwemithetho esebenzayo yase-US Yokudla Nezidakamizwa.

  1. UMLANDO

I-Th62018 Farm Bill, Pub. L. No. 115-334, omiswe ngoDisemba 20, 2018, ifaka izinhlinzeko eziningana eziphathelene ne-hemp.1 Lo mbono wezomthetho ugxile ezigabeni 7605, 10113, 10114, no 12619, ezifingqiwe ngezansi.

  • Isigaba 7605 ichibiyela isigaba 7606 soMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2014 (7 USC § 5940), ogunyaza izikhungo zemfundo ephakeme noma ukubekelwa phansi koMbuso kwezolimo ukukhulisa noma ukuhlakulela i-hemp yezimboni ngaphansi kwemibandela ethile-okungukuthi, uma i-hemp isikhulile noma itshalwe ngezinjongo zocwaningo Isimo esivumela ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp. Phakathi kokunye, isigaba 7605 sisiza i-2014 Farm Bill § 7606 ukudinga uNobhala wezoLimo (“Unobhala”) ukuthi enze ucwaningo ngalezi zinhlelo zocwaningo lwe-hemp futhi athumele umbiko kuCongress. Isigaba 11 sibuye sichithe unyaka ka-7605 Frum Bill§ 2014, wasebenza unyaka owodwa ngemuva kosuku uNobhala asungula uhlelo ngaphansi kwesigaba 7606C se 2
  • Isigaba 10113 i-aJ11 ixhasa i-AMA ngokungeza isihlokwana esisha G (izigaba 297A kuye ku-297E) (7 USC §§ 16390 -1639s) eziphathelene nokukhiqizwa kwe-hemp. Ngaphansi kwaleli gunya elisha, isizwe noma isizwe samaNdiya esifisa ukuba negunya elilawulayo lokuqalwa kokukhiqizwa kwe-hemp kuleso Sifundazwe noma indawo yalelo sizwe samaNdiya singahambisa, ukuze kuvunyelwe uNobhala, uhlelo oluphathelene nokuqashwa nokulawulwa kwalolo hlobo ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp .. Bona I-AMA § 297B. E-United States noma izizwe zamaNdiya ezingenazo izinqubo ezigunyaziwe, uNobhala uqondiswa ukuthi asungule uhlelo loMnyango oluphathelene nokuqashwa kanye nokulawulwa kokukhiqizwa kwe-hemp kulezo zindawo. Bona I-AMA§ 297C. The

1 Kuchaza uMthethosivivinywa we-Fann we-2014 "Hemp yezimboni" njenge "sitshalo seCannabis samathe L. nanoma iyiphi ingxenye yalesi sitshalo, noma ngabe siyakhula noma cha, sinamaphesenti angama-9 esisindo esomile." I-0.3 USC § 7 (a) (5940). Umthethosivivinywa we-Fann ka-2 ungeze isidumo esisha, esihlukile kancane ka "hemp" esigabeni 297A se-AMA, esivikelwe ngokuthi “isitshalo seCannabis samathe L. kanye nanoma yisiphi isitshalo saleso sitshalo, kufaka phakathi imbewu yaso nakho konke okususwayo, okukhishwa, ama-cannabinoids, ama-isomers, ama-asidi, usawoti kanye nosawoti wama-isomers, kungakhathalekile noma cha , nge-delta-9 tetrahydrocrumabinol yokuhlushwa okungamaphesenti angaphezu kwama-0.3 ngesisindo se-dJy. ” 7 I-USC

  • 16390 (1). Zombili izincazelo zidinga ukuqoqwa kwe-THC okungamaphesenti angaphezu kwama-0.3 ukuze isitshalo seCannabis sativa L. sithathwe njenge-hemp dhidi yensangu. Ngenhloso yalombono osemthethweni, ngisebenzisa imigomo "Hemp" futhi "Hemp yezimboni" ngokushintshana.

2 Umbiko Wenkomfa ohambisana noMthethosivivinywa we-Fann ka-2018 uchaza umphumela wokuqedwa kwalokhu: I-297C ye- [AMA]. ” I-HR REP. Cha. 115-1072, ku-699 (2018). ·

Unobhala uyacelwa futhi ukuthi akhuthaze imithetho nemihlahlandlela yokusebenzisa imibhalo engezansi

  1. Bona I-AMA § 297D. Igunya elisha liphinde linikeze izincazelo (bheka I-AMA § 297A) nokugunyazwa kokwabiwa kwezimali (bheka I-AMA § 297E).
  • Isigaba 10114 (I-7 UC § 16390 nothi) ilungiselelo elenzelwa abaningi abathi akukho lutho ngesihloko X soMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo we-2018 owenqabela ukuhweba okuphakathi kwemikhiqizo ye-hemp noma ye-hemp. Isigaba 10114 sibuye sihlinzeke ukuthi izizwe zaseMelika nezaseNdiya ngeke zivimbe ukuhanjiswa okuphakathi noma ukuthunyelwa kwemikhiqizo ye-hemp noma ye-hemp ekhiqizwa ngokuhambisana nesihlokwana G ngokusebenzisa uMbuso noma i-teititory yesizwe samaNdiya.
  • Isigaba 12619 ichibiyela i-CSA ukuthi ingabandakanyi i-hemp encazelweni ye-CSA yensangu Isigaba 1 619 futhi igcina i-CSAtoexclude THC ku-hemp kusuka kuHlelo I.3 \ ::

Ekwenzeni uMthethosivivinywa Wokulima we-2018, iCongress isemthethweni ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp ngazo zonke izinhloso ngaphakathi kwesilinganiso kodwa kugcinelwe iMelika kanye nezizwe zamaNdiya igunya lokusebenzisa futhi lokuphoqelela imithetho eqinile elawula ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp.

  1. ANALYSIS
  1. Ngokuya kokusetshenziswa koMthethosivivinywa we-Fa2018m ka-1 ngoDisemba 20120181 I-Hemp isusiwe ku-Usethe I soMthetho Wezinto ezilawulwayo futhi Azisekho Izidakamizwa Ezilawulwayo.

I-CSA § 102 (6) ichaza. "Into elawulwayo" isho "umuthi noma enye into, noma umsunguli osheshayo, kufakwe ohlelweni I, II, IIl, .JV, noma V kwengxenye B yalesi sihloko. . . . ” I-21 USC § 802 (6). I-Marijuana4 iyinto elawulwa efakwe kuhlu I lwe-CSA. Bona I-CSA § 202 (c) (10), isheduli I (21 USC § 812 (c), Isheduli I (c) (l0)); 21 CFR § 1308.ll (d) (23).

Umthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 uchibiyela i-CSA ngezindlela ezimbili.

  • Okokuqala, i-2018 Farm Bill§ 12619 (a) ichitshiyelwe incazelo yeCSA yensangu ukukhipha i-h mp. Ngaphambi kokufakwa koMthethosivivinywa we-Fam2018 ka-1, i-CSA§ 102 (16) (21 USC 802 (16)) ichaze insangu kanjena:
  • Igama elithi 'marihuana' lisho zonke izingxenye zesitshalo i-Cannabis sativa L., noma ngabe kuyakhula noma cha; imbewu yayo; i-resin ekhishwe kunoma iyiphi i-pa1t yalesi sitshalo; futhi yonke inhlanganisela, umakhi, usawoti, okususwayo, ingxube, noma ukulungiswa kwesitshalo esinjalo, imbewu yaso noma i-tetm enjalo ayifaki umhlanga ovuthiwe waleso sitshalo, umucu okhiqizwe kulezo zinhlamvu, uwoyela noma ikhekhe elenzelwe imbewu yesitshalo esinjalo , noma yikuphi okunye okwenziwe, ukwakheka, usawoti, okususwayo, umxube, noma ukulungisa izigaxa ezivuthiwe (ngaphandle kwe-resin ekhishwe lapho), i-fiber, i-oyili, noma ikhekhe,

3 Ngemininingwane eyengeziwe · ekukhiqizweni kwe-hemp ngaphambi kokufakwa kwe-2018 Fann Bi.II, bheka Insizakalo Yokucwaninga Nge-DRM, i- “Hemp njenge-Commodity Commodity” (RL32725) (ibuyekezwe Julayi 9, 2018), availukwazi at https: // crukubhuqa.congress.gov/product/pdf/RL/RL32725.

4 Lo mbono usebenzisa isipelingi esivamile se- “insangu” ngaphandle kwalapho sicaphuna i-CSA, esebenzisa isipelingi esithi “insangu”.

noma imbewu inzalo yalesi sitjalo engakwazi ukuhluma.

Njengoba kuchitshiyelwe uMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018, incazelo ye-CSA yensangu manje iyafundeka:

  • Ngokuya ngesihlokwana (B); igama elithi 'marihuana' lisho zonke izingxenye zesitshalo i-Cannabis sativa , ukuthi uyakhula noma cha; imbewu yayo; i-resin ekhishwe kunoma iyiphi ingxenye yalesi sitshalo; futhi yonke into eyakhiwayo, yokwenza, usawoti, okususwayo, ingxube, noma ukulungiswa kwesitshalo esinjalo, imbewu noma resin yayo.
  • Igama elithi 'marihuana' alifaki
  • i-hemp, njengoba kuchaziwe esigabeni 297A soMthetho Wezokumaketha Kwezolimo wango-1946; noma

8.

  • ukhula oluvuthiwe lwesitshalo esinjalo, isikhunta esikhiqizwa kulezo zinti; uwoyela noma ikhekhe elenziwe

imbewu yesitshalo esinjalo, noma iyiphi enye indawo, umakhi, usawoti, okuvela, ingxube, noma ukulungiselela kwalezo zinhlamvu ezivuthiwe (ngaphandle kwe-resin exn · wasebenza lapho), ifayibha, uwoyela, noma ikhekhe, noma imbewu inzalo yalesi sitshalo engakwazi ukuhluma.

  • Okwesibili, i-2018 Farm Bill§ 12619 (b) ichitshiyelwe i-CSA ukuthi ingabandakanyi i-THC eqenjini elithi "tetrahydrocannabinols" ohlelweni Njengoba kuchitshiyelwe nguMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018, i-CSA
  • 202 (c) (l 7), i-I (21 USC § 812 (c) (l 7), ishedyuli I) manje ifundeka:

Ama-Tetrahydrocannabinols, ngaphandle kwe-tetrahydrocannabinols in i-hemp (njengoba kuchaziwe Ngaphansi kwesigaba

I-297A yoMthetho Wezokumaketha Kwezolimo we-1946).

Ngokuchibiyela incazelo yensangu ukukhipha i-hemp njengoba kuchaziwe ku-AMA § 297A, iCongress isuse i-hemp ohlelweni I futhi ilususa ngokuphelele ku-CSA. Ngamanye amagama, i-hemp ayiseyona into elawulwayo. Futhi, ngokuchibiyela uhlelo I ukuze ngingafaki i-THC ku-hemp, iCongress nayo isuse i-THC ku-hemp ku-CSA.

Kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuthi lokhu kuncipha kwe-hemp (ne-THC ku-hemp) kuyazenzisa. Noma imithethonqubo yokusebenzisa iCSA kufanele ivuselelwe ukukhombisa izichibiyelo zoMthetho Wezinhlaka Zepulazi we-2018 kwi-CSA, noma ngabe ukushicilelwa kwaleyo mithethonqubo ehlaziyiwe noma yisiphi isenzo asikho isidingo sokwenza lokhu kususwa.

Ngikhuluma lapha mayelana nokuphikisana okubili okubalulekile ekubonakaleni ukuthi ukuqondiswa kwe-hemp kuyaziphendulela. Isiphikiso sokuqala ukuthi, ngoba izimiso azishicilelwanga ngaphansi kweCSA

  • 201, izinguquko zomthetho zokuhlela i-I mayelana ne-hemp azisebenzi. Lokhu kuphikisa akulungile.

Inqubo ejwayelekile yokuchibiyela amashejuli we-CSA ngokusebenzisa iziphikiso. Ngaphansi kwe-CSA

  • (A), uMmeli Jikelele ”angabusa, angeze, asuse, noma adlulise phakathi kwamashejuli, noma yiziphi izidakamizwa noma ezinye izinto lapho kutholwa okuthile. 201 I-USC
  • I-81l (a). Kodwa-ke, amashejuli nawo angaguqulwa ngokuqondile yiCongress ngokusebenzisa izinguquko kusimiso; futhi iCongress ikwenzile kaninginingi.5 ·

'Bheka, isib. I-Pub. L. I 12-144, § 1152 (ukuchibiyela uhlelo I ukufaka ama-cannabimimetic agents); I-Pub. L. 101-647,

  • I-1902 (a) (ishedyuli elungisa i-Ill ukufaka ama-anabolic steroid).

Isiphikiso sesibili ukuthi, ngoba izinguquko zomthetho zokuhlela i-I mayelana ne-hemp azikaboniswa ku-21 CFR § 1308.11, ukususwa akukasebenzi. Lokhu kuphikisa nakho akuvumelekile.

Kuyinto axiomatic ukuthi izimiso icilongo imithetho. Bheka Nat '/ Family Planning & Reprod. I-Health Ass'n, Inc. v. Gonzales, 468 F.3d 826,829 (DC Cir. 2006) ("[Is] simiso esivumelekile sihlala sihlula umthethonqubo ophikisanayo [.]"). ICongress isungule amashejuli amahlanu e-CSA ngokwesibalo, inqobo nje uma lokho kusho ukuthi "amasheduli ama-uch kuzoba nezinto ezibalwe kulesi sigaba." 21

I-USC § 812 (a) .6 ICongress ibuye yanikela ngokuthi "[amashejuli] asungulwa yilesi sigaba azovuselelwa futhi aphindwe kabusha ngesikhathi seminyaka emibili esiqala unyaka owodwa ngemuva kuka-Okthoba 27, 1970, futhi sizovuselelwa futhi lishicilelwa kabusha njalo ngonyaka. ” 21 USC § 812 (a). Isidingo sokuvuselela futhi ukushicilela kabusha amashejuli, noma kunjalo, akusona isidingo sokusebenza ngempumelelo kwamashejuli "asungulwe [yisimiso]." Umazisi Ngenye

amagama, lapho iCongress ngokwayo ichitshiyelwa khona amashejuli ukwengeza noma ukususa into elawulwayo, ukungezelelwa noma ukususwa kwento elawulwayo kusebenza ngokushesha lapho kwenziwa umthetho (ukungabikho olunye usuku olusebenzayo emthethweni); ukungezwa kwayo koku noma ukususwa kusuka ohlelweni akuxhomekile ku-rulemaking.7

Ukufanekisa, iCongress ichitshiyelwe i-CSA ngonyaka ka-2012 ukufaka "amanxusa we-cannabimimetic" ukuhlela I.

Lokho kuchitshiyelwa kwamenyezelwa njengengxenye yomthetho iSynthetic Duse Abuse Prevention Act ka2012 (Pub.

  1. I-112-144, isihloko u-XI, isihlokwana D), esasayinwa yaba ngumthetho ngoJulayi 9, 2012. Cishe izinyanga eziyisithupha kamuva, abakwaDrug Enforcing Administration (“DEA”) bashicilela umthetho wokugcina osungula amakhodi wezidakamizwa ama-cannabimimetic agents angezwe kuwo ukuhlela Mina yiCongress nokwenza ezinye izinguquko ezilinganayo zokuhlela I njengoba kufakwe ku-21 CFR § 1308.11. Bona 78 Fed. Reg. I-664 (Jan. 4, 2013). Ukuchaza ukuthi kungani umthetho wokubusa nokuphawula wawungadingeki, i-DEA yaphawula lokho
    • “Ukubekwa kwalezi zinto ezingama-26 kuHlelo I isivele isebenza kusukela ngoJulayi 9, " Umazisi ku-665 (kugcizelelwa). Ngamanye amagama, izinguquko zomthetho okumele ngizenze ukuze ngihlelelwe ngasebenza ngokushesha lapho ngisebenza. Ukuboniswa kwalezo zinguquko ku-1 CFR § 21, noma kudingekile yi-1308.11 USC § 21 (a), kwakungekho isidingo sokuthi kwenziwe lezo zinguquko ukuhlela i-I.

Ngokuvumelana nalokho, ukwenziwa koMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 kufezekise ukususwa kwe-hemp (ne-THC ku

i-hemp8 evela e-CSA. Ukuguqula izichibiyelo ku-21 CFR § 1308.11, ngenkathi kudingeka njengoba kusihlwa

I-6 "Marihuana" ne "Tetrahydrocannabinols" zombili zifakiwe kuhlelo lokuqala engalusungulwa yiCongress ngo-1970.

7 I-CJ United States v. Huerta, 547 F.2d 545, I-547 (10th Cir. 1977) ("F [ukulimala] ukushicilela amasheduli 'abukeziwe' njengoba kudingwa iSigaba 812 (a) akunamthelela ekuqinisekisweni kwalezo zinto ekuqaleni ezifakwe kuhlu lwesihlanu.”); I-United States v. Monroe, 408 F. Nikeza. 270,274 (ND Cal. 1976) (“Kanjalo, ngenkathi isigaba 812 (a) siyala ngokusobala i amashejuli ezinto ezilawulwayo okumele ziphinde zishicilelwe, it kuyacaca ukuthi iCongress ibingahlosile ukuphindisela ukusebenza njenge Ukuphindwa futhi kwamashejuli, okuthi uma kwenziwe ngokungafanele kubangele ukuthi lawo masheduli aphelelwe yisikhathi futhi aphelelwe yisikhathi ……………………………………………………………………… .. [T] he

Isidingo sokuthi amashejuli, uma 'asavuselelwa,' ashicilelwe kabusha 'ayenzelwe kuphela injongo yokusungula uhlu olulodwa oluzokhombisa zonke izinto ezazingaphansi kwemibandela yoMthetho ……………………………………… …………………………………………… .. ..)).

8 Isheduli I, njengoba ishicilelwe ku-21 CFR § I-1308.11, ifaka nencazelo yama "tetrahydrocannabinols" esigabeni (d) (3I) angaveli kwi-CSA. Ngaphandle kokubakhona kwalenchazelo emithethweni ye-cw · rent, Mina

kwesibopho esiqhubekayo se -DEA sokushicilela amashejuli abukeziwe, akudingekile ukwenza izinguquko zoMthethosivivinywa Wepulazi lowama-2018 ukuze uhlelele i-I.

B. Ngemuva kokuthi uMnyango wezoLimo ushicilele Imigomo Esebenzisa Ukuhlinzekelwa Kwe-Hemp Production yoMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 oqukethe Isingeniso G soMthetho Wezokumaketha Kwezolimo wango-1946, Izwe kanye Nezinkampani ZaseNdiya Zingavimbeli Ukuhamba Kwezokuhamba Okuhambisanayo noma Ukuhanjiswa Kwama Hemp Lawfnlly Kukhiqizwe Ngaphansi KoMbuso noma Yisizwe Hlela noma Ngaphansi kwelayisense ekhishwe ngaphansi kohlelo loMnyango.

I-AMA § 297D (a) (l) (A) iyalela uNobhala ukuthi akhiphe imithetho nezinkombandlela “ngokushesha okukhulu ngangokunokwenzeka” ukuze kusetshenziswe isihlokwana G se-AMA. 7 I-USC § 1639r (a) (l) (A) .. Le mithethonqubo izobhekana nokuvunywa kwezinhlelo zoMbuso nezama-Tribal ngaphansi kwe-AMA § 297B kanye nokukhishwa kwamalayisense ngaphansi kohlelo loMnyango ngaphansi kwe-AMA § 297C. Njengoba kuchaziwe ngezansi, uma nje le mithetho ishicilelwe, izizwe zaseMelika nezaseNdiya angeke zikwenqabele ukuthutha noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp (kufaka phakathi imikhiqizo ye-hemp) ekhiqizwa ngokuya ngohlelo oluvunyiwe lukaHulumeni noma lwezobuzwe noma olwenziwe ngaphansi kwelayisense elikhishwe ngaphansi kohlelo loMnyango.

Ukuhamba kwe-hemp kubhekwana nayo ngonyaka we-2018 Farm Bill§ 10114.10 Isigatshana (a) sihlinzeka:

  • IMITHETHO YOBUFAKAZI kulokhu noma ukuchibiyelwa okwenziwe yilesi sihloko kuvimbela ukuhweba okuphakathi kwe-hemp (njengoba kuchazwe esigabeni 297A soMthetho Wezokumaketha Kwezolimo ka-1946 (njengoba kungezwe yisigaba 10113) noma imikhiqizo ye-hemp.

I-7 USC § 16390 inothi. Lokhu kuhlinzekelwa ukuthi akukho lutho ngesihloko X soMthethosivivinywa we-Fann ka-2018

Nginombono wokuthi i-THC ese-hemp ayifakwa ku-THC njengohlelo engilubonayo ngaphansi kweCSA ngenxa yezichibiyelo zoMthetho Wezilimo Wama-2018.

9 Isheduli I, njengoba ikhonjiswe ku-21 CFR § 1308.11, ifaka phakathi uhlu oluhlukile lwe- "marihuana" kusigaba

(d) (58). Ukukhishwa kwe-Marijuana akuboniswa kuhlelo I ku-simiso ngoba lungezwe ngemuva! 970 ngomthethonqubo ngaphansi kwe-CSA § 201. Igama elithi "ukukhipha i-marihuana" lichazwa kumthethonqubo ngokuthi "okukhishwe kuqukethe eyodwa noma ngaphezulu ama-cannabinoids atholwe kunoma yisiphi isitshalo sohlobo lweCannabis, ngaphandle kwe-resin ehlukanisiwe (noma ngabe ongahluziwe noma ohlanzekile) otholwe esitshalweni. ” Umthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 uchibiyela incazelo ye- "marihuana" ukuze ingafakwa I-hemp, kepha ngenxa yokuthi incazelo elandelwayo ye- "marihuana ekhishwa" ehlelweni angisebenzisi amagama athi "marihuana" noma "teb · ahydrocannabinols" ukuchaza ithenisi, kuphakama umbuzo wokuthi ngabe ukukhipha i-hemp isekhona yini kubhekwe ukuba kufakwe kuhlu njengohlelo engilulawula into. Ngenkathi udaba lungaxazululwa ngokuningaphezulu kulo mbono, Ngicabanga ukuthi incazelo ebuyekeziwe esemthethweni ye "marihuana" isuse ngempumelelo i-dmp hemp ezinhlelweni I, futhi lokho kukhombisa okunjalo ku-21 CFR § I-1308.1I (d) (58) kuzoba nje ukuchibiyelwa okuvumayo. ·

10 Ukuhamba kwe-Hemp kubuye kubhekwane nezenzo zokwabiwa konyaka, okubuyisela imali eyabelwe i-Federal kusuka ekusetshenzisweni ukwenqabela i-transpmtation ye-hemp. Noma kunjalo, lawo malungiselelo alinganiselwe esikalini ngoba ikheli kuphela i-hemp ekhiqizwe ngaphansi kwegunya le-Fann Bill le-2014, futhi bakhuluma kuphela Federal izenzo zikahulumeni. Okusho ukuthi, ngenkathi izinhlinzeko zenqabela abalingisi beFederal ukuthi bavimbe ukuthutha okubizwa nge- “2014 Farm Bill hemp, ”azikhawulisi isenzo soMbuso in ukuthi. Bona Ezolimo, i-Rural Developmerit, Ukudla nezidakamizwa Ukuphathwa, kanye Nezimali Ezihlobene Nama-ejenti Ezezimali, 2019, Pub. L. 116-6, div. B, § 728 (okwenqabela imali etholakala ngalo mthetho noma yimuphi omunye umthetho ukuthi usetshenziswe ngokungahambisani ne -2014 Farm Bill§ 7606 noma "ku prohibit the transpoi-rtation1 processing, Ukudayiswa, or use of umkhakhal i-hemp, or imbewus of juiceh Isitshalo, ukuthi is ikhulile or kulinywe ngokuya nge [2014 Farm Bill§ 7606], ngaphakathi noma ngaphandle koMbuso lapho kukhona i-hemp yezimboni ukhulile noma uthekiwe ”). Bhekafuthi Ezokuhweba, ezobulungiswa, ezesayensi, kanye nezomthetho wokwabiwa kwezimali okuhlobene nazo, 2019, Pub.

  1. 116-6, div. C, § 536 ("Akukho neyodwa imali eyenziwe yatholakala ngalo mthetho engasetshenziswa ngokungqubuzana ne- [2014 Farm Bill§ 7606] nguMnyango Wezobulungiswa noma i-Drug Enfortage Administration.").

iyakwenqabela ukuxhumana kwe-hemp. Kodwa-ke, lokhu kuhlinzekwa, kumi yodwa, akunamphumela wokugunyazwa kokuhamba kwe-hemp emazweni aseMelika noma ezindaweni zoMdabu lapho lezo zinto zokuhamba zivinjelwe ngaphansi komthetho woMbuso noma weNhlangano.

Isigatshana (b), nokho, sinqabela ngokuqondile amazwe ase-United States nezwe laseNdiya ukwenqamula ukuthuthwa kwe-hemp kuleyo Nhlangano noma i-Tribal ten'itory. Isigatshana (b) siyanikeza

  • UKUSHINTSHA I-HEMP NE-HEMP-Akukho State noma i-Indian Tribe kuyokwenqabela transp011ation noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp noma i-hemp prodLttures kukhiqizwe in ngokuya ngesihlokwana G se Umthetho Wezokumaketha Kwezolimo wango-1946 (njengoba ungezwe yisigaba 10113) ngoHulumeni noma ngomqondo wamashumi ayishumi we-Indian Tribe, njengoba kusebenza.

I-7 USC § 16390 inothi. Empeleni, lokhu kuhlinzekelwa kukhetha umthetho woMbuso kuze kufike lapho umthetho woMbuso ufinyelela khona

iyakwenqabela ukuhanjiswa kwe-interstate011 noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp okhiqizwe ngokuya ngenhlokwana G ye-AMA.

Ngokuphathelene nomthetho-sisekelo, “[yena] uyena ophethe umthetho ophakeme ohlinzeka ngomthetho ocacile wokuthi umthetho wezwe kufanele ube ngumthetho ophakeme wezwe; futhi abaHluleli kuyo yonke iMibuso bazoboshwa ngaleyo ndlela, noma yiluphi uhlangothi olukuMthethosisekelo noma iMithetho yanoma yiluphi [iS] olungaqondakali Ngokuphikisana…. ' Ngaphansi kwalesi simiso, iCongress inamandla okuvikela umthetho [we]. I-Arizona v. United States, 567

I-US 387, 398-99 (2012) (ekhombisa ubuciko be-US Const. VI, Cl. 2). "Ngaphansi kwemfundiso yokuthi uhulumeni angavumeli izwe, umthetho wobumbano ushaya noma ufake esikhundleni umthetho noma umthetho olandelwayo." I-United States v. Zadeh, I-820 FJd 746, 751 (5th Cir. 2016).

Izinkantolo Zombuso zivame ukuqaphela izinhlobo ezintathu zokukhululwa: (1) ukukhululwa okubonisa (lapho iCongress "isusa [s]" amandla kuHulumeni ngokuhlinzekwa kokukhululwa okucacisiwe)); 11 (2) ukukhokhelwa kwenkambu (lapho iMelika ivinjelwe kulawulo Ukuziphatha emkhakheni okwenziwe yiCongress, ngokusebenzisa igunya lawo elifanele, kufanele kulawulwe ngabaphathi bawo kuphela ”);12 kanye nokuxolelwa kokungezwani (lapho imithetho yoMbuso ivunyelwa khona uma ingqubuzana nomthetho we-Federal, okubandakanya izimo "lapho 'ukulandela imithetho ye-federal kanye ne-S] kuwukungabonakali'" noma izimo "lapho umthetho ophikisanayo [S] uphikisanayo ' simi njengesithiyo ekufezeni nasekufezekisweni kwezinjongo nezinhloso ezigcwele zeCongress "').13 E-Arizona, I-567 I-US ku-399-400 (izingcaphuno ezingenisiwe); bona futhi uZadeh, I-820 F.3d ku-751.

11 Bheka, isib, 7 I-USC § Ngo-1639i (b) (“(b) Ukukhishwa Kwezepolitiki.-Akukho State noma ukwahlukaniswa kombuso kwezwe kwezepolitiki ukusungula ngokuqondile noma ngokungaqondile ngaphansi kwanoma iliphi igunya noma uqhubeke ngokusebenza kunoma yikuphi ukudla noma imbewu ekuhwebeni kwangaphakathi noma yiziphi izidingo eziphathelene nokulebuli yokuthi ukudla (kufaka phakathi ukudla okudliwayo endaweni yokudlela noma enye indawo) noma imbewu kukhiqizwe ngofuzo (okuzobandakanya namanye amagama afanayo anqunywe yi- UNobhala Wezolimo) noma athuthukisiwe noma akhiqizwa kusetshenziswa i-genetic engineering, kufaka phakathi noma yisiphi isidingo sezicelo zokuthi ukudla noma inzalo noma okuqukethe isithako esakhiwe noma sakhiqizwa kusetshenziswa ubunjiniyela bofuzo. ”).

12 Bheka, isib. Ugesi & Elec. I-Co v. State Energy Res. Ukulondolozwa & I-Dev. Comm 'n, 461 US 190,212 ("[T) uhulumeni wobumbuso uthathe lonke uhlangothi lwezinkinga zezokuphepha zenuzi, ngaphandle kokuthi amandla angenamkhawulo avumelanise ngokuphelele [ama-S] tates.").

  • n Bona, isib, 21 USC 903 ("Akukho ukuhlinzekwa kwalesi sinqumo esincanyana esizothathwa njengokukhombisa inhloso yengxenye yeCongress yokuthatha inkambu lapho lelo lungiselelo lisebenza khona, kufaka phakathi izinhlawulo zobugebengu, ukuze kufakwe kunoma yimuphi umthetho woMbuso kulolo daba olulodwa olungahlinzeka ngaphandle kwalokho yiba ngaphansi kwegunya Lombuso, ngaphandle kwalapho kukhona

Isigaba 10114 (b) soMthethosivivinywa we-Fann ka-2018 sigcwalisa incazelo yokuvikela ukungqubuzana ngoba umthetho woMbuso owenqabela ukuthutha okuphakathi noma ukuthunyelwa kwemikhiqizo ye-hemp noma ye-hemp ekhiqizwe ngokuhambisana nesihlokwana G se-AMA kuzoba kungqubuzana ngqo ne · isigaba 10114 (b), esihlinzeka ngokuthi akukho Zwe elingavimba imisebenzi enjalo.14 Ngakho-ke, noma yimuphi umthetho woMbuso onqunyelwe yiCongress. Umphumela ofanayo usebenza ezizweni zamaNdiya.15

Sekukonke, uma imigomo yokusebenzisa ishicilelwe, izizwe zaseMelika nezaseNdiya angeke zikwenqekele ukuthunyelwa ngokusemthethweni kwe-hemp ngokusemthethweni ngaphansi kwepulani likaHulumeni noma lobuzwe noma ngaphansi kwelayisense elikhishwe ngaphansi kohlelo loMnyango.

C. Ama-Stlites kanye ne-Indian Tribe Engahle Kungavimbeli Ukuhamba Okuphakathi noma Ukuhanjiswa Kwe-Hemp Khiqizwe Ngokomthetho Ngaphansi Kwezolimo Zonyaka we-2014.

Ngoba i-2018 Fmm Bill ayichithi masisha igunya lesishayeli se-hemp ngonyaka wezi-2014 iFarm Bill § 7606 - futhi ngenxa yokuthi ukushicilelwa kwama-regislriers okuhlinzekela izinhlinzeko zokukhiqizwa kwe-hemp kuMthethosivivinyo we-Fann we-2018 cishe ngeke kwenzeke kuze kube kamuva ngo-2019-umbuzo uphakama ukuthi ngabe amazwe angaba yini. futhi izizwe zamaNdiya zinqatshelwe ukuvimba ukuthutha okuphakathi noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp (kufaka phakathi imikhiqizo ye-hemp) ekhiqizwa ngokusemthethweni ngaphansi koMthethosivivinywa we-2014 Fmm. Impendulo incike kwencazelo yesisho esithi "ngokuya ngesihlokwana G se-Agricultural MarketingActof1946 2018 ku10114FmmBill § 7 (b) (1639U.SC § 297onote). I-hemp kuphela ekhiqizwe ngokuhambisana nesihlokwana G imbozwe ukunikezwa kokuxolelwa okuxoxwe ngenhla. Njengoba kuchaziwe ngezansi, kungumbono wami ukuthi impendulo yalo mbuzo yebo, ngokusebenza kwe-AMA § XNUMXB (f).

I-AMA§ 297B (f) isho umphumela osemthethweni wezinhlinzeko ezigunyaza amazwe aseMelika kanye nezizwe zamaNdiya ukuthuthukisa amasu wokusebenzisa igunya lokulawula i-primmy phezu kukhiqizwe i-hemp kuleyo Nhlangano noma indawo yesizwe samaNdiya. Ngokukhethekile, isigaba 297B (f) sihlinzeka:

(f) I-EFFECT.-Akukho lutho kulesi sigaba esenqabela ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp eMbusweni noma emugqeni wesizwe samaNdiya-

(!) okunguhlelo lukaHulumeni noma lwezobuzwe olungavunyelwe ngaphansi kwalesi sigaba, uma ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp kuhambisana nesigaba 297C noma eminye imithetho ye-Federal (kufaka phakathi imithetho); futhi

(2) uma ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp kungavinjelwe ngenye indlela yisizwe noma isizwe samaNdiya.

ukungqubuzana okuhle phakathi kokuhlinzekwa kwalesi sihlokwana nalowo mthetho woMbuso ukuze laba bobabili bangabi nokuma ngokuqinile. ”).

14 Ngenye indlela, isigaba 10114 (b) singabhekwa njengesihlinzekelo sokuxolelwa okucacisiwe ngoba umthetho uhoxisa amandla e-State State ngokunqabela ukuthutha noma ukuthunyelwa kwemikhiqizo ye-hemp noma ye-hemp ngoMbuso.

15 I-AMA§ I-297B (a) (3) iqukethe ukuhlinzekelwa kokulawulwa kokumelekela okusho ukuthi akukho lutho ku§ 297B (a) "elikhuthaza noma libeke umkhawulo kunoma imuphi umthetho wesizwe soMbuso noma samaNdiya" uHregulates ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp "futhi" ulukhuni kune [subtitle G] .11 TU.SC § J639p (a) (3). Noma kunjalo, lelo lungiselelo lokulwa nokukhululwa lilinganiselwe ku- production we-hemp - hhayi ezokuthutha noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp- futhi ngenxa yalokho ayingqubuzani ne-2018 Farm Bill§ IOI14 (b).

7 I-USC § I-1639p (f) (kugcizelelwa).

Lokhu kuhlinzekelwa kubhekela ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp endaweni yoMbuso noma Yobuzwe lapho uMbuso noma isizwe singenayo uhlelo oluvunyiwe ngaphansi kwe-AMA § 297B. Lokhu kuhlinzekwa kwamukela ukuthi, esimweni esinjalo, ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp kuleso Sifundazwe noma i-Tribal teITitory kusabonakala kuze kube manje uma kukhiqizwa noma ngokuya ngecebo loMnyango ngaphansi kwe-AMA § 297C or ngokuya ngeminye imithetho ye-Federal, futhi uMbuso noma isizwe akuvimbi ngenye indlela ukukhiqizwa kwawo.

Ulimi olucashile lwesihlokwana G se-AMA, njengoba sengezwe nguMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018, ngakho-ke sibonisa ngokusobala isithombe esingesihle lapho i-hemp ingaveliswanga ngaphansi kohlelo oluvunyiwe luka-297B noma ngaphansi kwelayisense elikhishwe ngaphansi kohlelo loMnyango luka-297C, kodwa namanje kukhiqizwa ngokusemthethweni ngaphansi

"Eminye imithetho ye-Federal." Kungumbono wami ukuthi "eminye imithetho ye-Federal" ifaka i-2014 Farm Bill

  • 7606.16

Ngokwazi kwami, ngaphambi kokwenza umthetho we-2014 Farm Bill7606 XNUMX, i-CSA kwakuwukuphela komthetho we-Federal ogunyaza ukwenziwa kwe-hemp. Ngempela, ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp- njengokuthi "ukwenziwa" kohlelo engilulawulile - kwakuvunyelwe kungavunyelwe ngaphansi kwe-CSA ngaphandle kwezinga eligunyazwe ngaphansi kokubhaliswa noma ukuwaqa ngaphansi kwe-CSA. Bona 21 I-USC

  • § 802 (15), 802 (22), 822, no-823; I-21 CFR paJt 1301. Njengoba kunikezwe (1) ukususwa kwe-hemp njengento ephethwe ngaphansi kweCSA, (2) ukumiswa kokulibaziseka kwegunya lowezi-2014 Fann Bill§ 7606, kanye (3) nokwenziwa kweziphathimandla ezintsha zokukhiqiza kwe-hemp G we-AMA, kungumbono wami ukuthi "eminye imithetho ye-Federal" isho okunhlinzekwa ngo-2014 Farm Bill
  • I-7606, eseyasebenza. Ukuhumusha okunjalo kunika umphumela osheshayo othi "eminye imithetho ye-Federal." "Imigomo eyinhloko yokuhumusha okumele abafundi banikeze .ouffect, uma kungenzeka, kuwo wonke amagatshana negama lesimiso." Bona, isib, i-Loughrin v. United States, I-573 US 351, 358 (2014) (izingcaphuno zangaphakathi nezicaphuno)). ·

Ngakho-ke, ukufunda i-AMA§ 297B (f) ngokuvumelana ne-2018 Faim Bill§ 10114 (b), uma i-hemp ikhiqizwa ngokusemthethweni ngokuhambisana ne-2014 Farm Bill§ 7606 ("omunye umthetho we-Federal"), ke, nge-viJtue ye-AMA § 297B (f), ukukhiqizwa kwayo akuvunyelwe. I-hemmp enjalo ngabe yakhiqizwa "ngokuya ngesihlokwana G," esisho ngqo i-scenaifo enjalo, njenge-AMA

  • I-297B (f) iyingxenye yesihlokwana G. Ngokuvumelana nalokho, ngaphansi kuka-2018 Farm Bill§ 10114 (b), uMbuso noma umNdiya

16 Ukuthi iCongress ibone isimo esinjalo ibonakala inikezwe lolu limi ngonyaka we-2018 Fann Bill§ 7605 (b} ukubambezela ukuhoxiswa kuka -2014 Ipulazi iBill§ 7606 kuze kube izinyanga eziyi-12 ngemuva Unobhala usungula uhlelo lwe-297C. Ngokuvumelana nalokhu, lokhu kuhlanganiswa kunganqunyelwa yi-AMA§ 1C (c) (l), enikezela: “[i] icala lesizwe noma isizwe samaNdiya lapho uhlelo loMbuso noma lwezwe lungavunyelwanga ngaphansi kwesigaba 297B, kungabi semthethweni ukukhiqiza i-hemp kuleso Sifundazwe noma umbono weshumi waleso sizwe samaNdiya ngaphandle kwelayisense elikhishwe uNobhala ngaphansi kwesigatshana (b). " Njengoba kunikezwe ireferensi "noma eminye imithetho ye-Federal" ku-AMA § 297B (f) (l) - futhi iqiniso lokuthi i-297 Farm Bill§ 2014 isasebenza

- kungaba ukufunda okungaqondakali kwe-AMA §297C (c) (J) ukuphetha ngokuthi i-hemp ekhiqizwa ngokuhambisana nomthetho we-Federal (2014 Fann Bill § 7606), ngasikhathi sinye, akukho emthethweni ngaphandle kwelayisense ehlukile ekhishwe nguNobhala ngaphansi kohlelo lwe-297C. Njengoba ama-com1s abonile kudala, ukubalwa okuphelele okungokomthetho okuthi “kukhiqize imiphumela engenangqondo ukugwemeka ukutolika okuhambisana nenhloso yomthetho kuyatholakala. ” UGriffin v. Oc_eanic Osonkontileka, Inc., 458 US 564,575 (1982).

Isizwe asikwazi ukwenqabela ukuthutha noma ukuthunyelwa kwalokho okubizwa nge- “01 Farm Bill hemp” kuleyo ndawo yoMbuso noma yeNhlangano.17

Okuthuthukile Kwamuva

Ngiyavuma ukuthi lesi siphetho siyangqubuzana nesinqumo esenziwe kwakamuva ecaleni lesifunda sase-Idaho, kodwa futhi kuyahambisana nesinqumo sakamuva ecaleni eliseSifundeni EsiseNingizimu Ntshonalanga Virginia. Akukho nkantolo eyabhekana nolimi “lweminye imithetho ye-Federal” e-AMA § 297B (f) (l), engiyithola ingaqondakali.

In IBig Sky Science Science LLC v. Jdaho State Police, Icala No. 19-CV-00040 (D. Idaho), ijaji lemantshi lithole ukuthi ukuthunyelwa kwe-OregoI1 hemp kulibangise eColorado futhi kwavinjwa ngamaphoyisa ase-Idaho State kwakungeke kukhiqizwe “ngokuhambisana nesihlokwana G” ngoba uMbuso wemvelaphi ayikabi nalo uhlelo olugunyaziwe rn1der AMA § 297B futhi Unobhala akakaze asungule uhlelo ngaphansi kwe-AMA § 297C.18 Imantshi ivumile umthetho we-Oregon ogunyaza ukutshala i-hemp, iphawula ukuthi u-hemp wakhiqizwa ngumlimi onikezwe ilayisensi nguMnyango wezoLimo wase-Oregon (futhi, ngenxa yalokho, ngokuhambisana nezidingo ze-Fann Bill§ ezingama-2014 ka-7606.19 Kodwa-ke, ekuphikeni ukuthi lesi sikhalazo siqondiswe embhalweni wokuqala, imantshi yaphetha ngokuthi, ekwenzeni umthetho wepulazi lowezi-2018, iCongress ihlose "ukudala uhlaka lokulawula okuzungezile ukukhiqizwa kanye nokuhanjiswa kwe-hemp yezimpawu zomthetho wamazwe, kanye nalolo hlaka. kuzofakwa ohlelweni lukahulumeni lwenhlangano (noma oluhambisanayo [S] noma [T]] lokukhiqiza i-hemp olutholakala kuMthethosivivinywa we-Fmm ka-2018. ”20 Yize uMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 uvumela ukuthi i-hemp idluliselwe emigqeni yoMbuso, imantshi yahlawula zonke lezo zivikelo zezentengiselwano ezisetshenziswayo zisebenza kuphela kwi-hemp ekhiqizwe ngaphansi kwemithetho emenyezelwe ngaphansi kwegunya loMthetho Wezolimo wase-111 Ngakho-ke, ngoba leyo mithethonqubo ayikabikho, i-hemp evimbelayo ingaphansi komthetho we-Idaho owenqabela ukudluliswa kwayo.

I-USDA akuyona i-pmty ku Isibhakabhaka esikhulu icala, futhi leli hhovisi alivumelani nokucatshangelwa kwemantshi mayelana nokuhanjiswa kwe-hemp ngokusemthethweni okukhishwe ngaphansi koMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2014. In

Lesi siphetho kubonakala sengathi siyasekelwa emlandweni womthetho futhi. Lapho ichaza umphumela wokuhlinzekelwa kokuxolelwa, uMbiko Wengqungquthela uthi: “Ngenkathi [ama-S] nezizwe zamaNdiya zingakhawulela ukukhiqizwa nokuthengiswa kwemikhiqizo ye-hemp neyama-hemp ngaphakathi kwemingcele yabo, Abaphathi, kwaSec. Abangu-17 [sic], bavumile ukuthi bangavumi ama-[S] tates nezizwe zamaNdiya ukuthi zinciphise izinto zokuhamba noma ukuthunyelwa kwemikhiqizo ye-hemp noma ye-hemp ngokusebenzisa [i-S] tate noma i-Indian area10112y. " I-HR REP. Cha. 01-115, ku-1072 (738). Ngokuphawulekile, Abaphathi babhekisela ku-hemp ngokuvamile, hhayi nje i-hemp ekhiqizwa ngaphansi kwepulani elakhiwe ngaphansi kwesihlokwana G se-AMA.

18 Bona i-Big Sky, ECF Doc. # 32, Isinqumo seMemorandum ne-oda Re: Amaphikseli Enkuthazo Yokuqala; bona futhi ECF Doc. # 6, Isinqumo seMemorandum ne-oda Re: Isikhalazo Sezimo eziphuthumayo ze-Plaintiffs Order Yesikhashana Sokubuyiselwa Kwesikhashana kanye nesehlakalo sangaphambi kokuqokwa kanye ne-Plaintiffs Motion eya ku-File Overlength Brief (itholakala ku- I-2019 WL 438336 (Februwari 2, 2019).

19 I-Big Sky, ECF Doc. # 32, ngo-5, 7-8.

20 Umazisi ku-3.

21 Umazisi ngo-19-26.

Esebenzisa ulimi olusemthethweni, imantshi yaphawula kahle umgomo owamukelekile wokwakha okusemthethweni ukuthi izimiso akumele zihunyushwe “ngendlela enikeza ezinye izinhlinzeko zesimemezelo esifanayo ezingahambelani, ezingenangqondo, noma ezingenamqondo.” 1 Noma kunjalo, kubonakala sengathi ukukubetha lokho. umgomo wokuqondisa wokuhumusha, imantshi ayizange ibhekane nomphumela wolimi “lweminye imithetho ye-Federal” e-AMA § 22B (f) noma izame ukunikeza lolo limi noma iyiphi incazelo. Inkantolo yase-Idaho yehlulekile ukufunda lesi simiso sisonke futhi ayizange icabangele lo “mithetho eminye yeFederal” engibona ingangqineki. Ngokunikezwa kwesimo sokuqala senkantolo yemantshi, ngithola umbono wakhe uphika ukuthi umthetho wokuqala uyindlovukazi.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukuhunyushwa kwe-2018 Farm Bill § 10114 ethuthukiswe ngulo mbono wezomthetho kuyahambisana nesinqumo esikhishwe eSifundeni EsiseNingizimu Ntshonalanga Virginia. In I-United States v. Mallory, Icala No. 18-CV-1289 (SDW Va.), I-Oepmtment of Justice yafaka enkantolo icala lokuthatha i-hemp okusolwa ukuthi ikhule ngokungahambisani ne-CSA futhi nangaphandle kwesilinganiso soMthethosivivinywa we-Fann ka-2014. Kuleso simo-ke lelo cala lalikhule ngokuhlanzekile ngumkhiqizi onikezwe ilayisense yi-State of West Virginia ngaphansi kohlelo lomshayeli we-2014 Fmm Bill§ 7606, lapho imbewu ye-hemp yathunyelwa isuka kumthengisi waseKentucky eyayelayisensiwe yiCommonwealth yaseKentucky ngaphansi koMthethosivivinywa Wepulazi lowezi-2014

  • Uhlelo lokushayela olungu-7606. Inkantolo ithembele kwinhlanganisela yemithetho - uMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo we-2014, ukwabiwa kwezicelo, 24 kanye noMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 - ukuqeda umthetho wokuqala owenzelwe ummangalelwa25 kanye nokuchitha ngokuphelele icala likahulumeni.26 Ekuqedeni lo mthetho wenkambiso yangaphambili. , inkantolo ithande abamangalelwa ukuthi bathuthele umkhiqizo we-hemp unqamule izintambo zoMbuso bawuse ePennsylvania ukuze ucutshungulwe futhi uthengiswe.1

Nakuba Mallory Inkantolo ibingenayo ithuba lokuthi ibhekane nanoma yimiphi imizamo yoMbuso yokuvimbela ukuthuthwa kwe-hemp, inkantolo ikhiphe isitatimende se-Fmm Bill § 2018, yaphawula ukuthi "ivumela ngokusobala ukuthi i-hemp, imbewu yayo ne-hemp, ithole imikhiqizo edluliselwa emigqeni yoMbuso. "Umbono wejaji lesifunda ubhekise kwi-hemp ekhiqizwe ngaphansi kuka-10114 Fann Bill§ 28 hhayi ukuqhutshwa kwe-Hmp ngaphansi kwezinhlelo zoMbuso, zoMdabu, noma zokuDilizwa. Isiphetho esifinyelelwe ngu Mall01y inkantolo iyahambisana nokubaluleka kwami ​​okuphelele kokuthi iMelika ngeke ivimbele ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp, noma

22 Umazisi ku-21-22 (ekhononda v Padash. I.NS., I-258 F.3d ll61, 1170-71 (9th Cir. 2004)). Imantshi yaqhubeka:

Kungumgomo oyinhloko wokwakhiwa kwezibalo okufanele umthetho, phezu kwawo wonke, kube njalo kuthathe lokho, uma it kungavinjelwa, akukho sigatshana, umusho, noma igama eliyodlula konke, lingabi nalutho, noma akubalulekile. … Kungumsebenzi wethu ukwenza, uma kungenzeka, kuwo wonke amagatshana negama lesimiso.

Umazisi ku-23 (izingcaphuno zangaphakathi nezikhombo ezishiywe).

23 Impela, ukuhlangana kukamantshi kuyaphikisana. Bona I-Big Sky Sci. I-LLC v. Bennetts, Icala No. 19-35138 (9th Cir.).

24 Bheka Supra umbhalo waphansi 10.

25 Mal / olJ ', ECF Doc. # 60, Imemorandum Opinion and Order, 2019 WL 252530 (SDW Va. Jan. 17, 2019).

26 Mal / yami, I-BCF Doc. # 72, Imemorandum Opinion and Order, 2019 WL 1061677 (SDW Va. Mar. 6, 2019).

27 Mal / o, y, I-BCF Doc. # 60, 2019 WL 252530, ku- * 3.

28 I-Mallory, I-BCF Doc. # 72, 2019 WL 1061677, at * I-6:

Ikhasi 12

ukuthi i-hemp yakhiqizwa ngaphansi koMthethosivivinywa we-Faim we-2014 noma ngaphansi koHulumeni Wezwe, wezinhlanga, noma woMnyango w1der uMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018. Kuphinde kube yisinqumo sokugcina seSouthern District of West Virginia cowt, futhi akusona isinqumo sokuqala njengombono kamantshi wesifunda.29

Ezindabeni zokuhunyushwa okusemthethweni, umbhalo walesi simiso uyaphatha. Umuntu kufanele afunde lowo mbhalo ngokuphelele futhi anikeze igama elithi eve1y. Ukubhekiswa "kweminye imithetho ye-Federal" kumele kunikezwe incazelo, futhi lelo limi lisho ngokucacile umthetho we-Federal ogunyaza njengamanje ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp - 2014 Fann Bill § 7606. Ngakho-ke, i-hemp ekhiqizwa ngaphansi kwalelo gunya lomshayeli yi-hemp ekhiqizwa ngokuya nge isihlokwana G se-AMA. Izizwe zase-United States nezaseNdiya zingahle zingakwenqabeli ukuthunyelwa noma ukuthunyelwa kwalelo hhem ngaleyo Nhlangano noma i-Tribal tenitory. ·

D. Imikhawulo Yezindawo Zepulazi Yezindawo Zonyaka we-2018 ekukhiqizweni kweHemp ngamaFelon athile.

Umthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 ungeze ilungiselelo elisha elibhekelela amandla wabasolwa abatholakala benecala lokukhiqiza i-hemp. Umthethosivivinywa we-Faim wango-2014 awunalutho ngalolu daba. I-AMA§ 297B (e) (3) (B) (ngemuva kwalokhu, “Ukuhlinzekelwa kukaFelony”), njengoba kungezwe nguMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018, unikeza:

(B) FELONY.—

  • NGOKUPHAKATHI-Ngaphandle kokuthi kuhlinzekelwe esigatshaneni (ii), noma yimuphi umuntu olahlwe yicala lokukhulunywa ngokuhlobene ne into elawulwayo ngaphansi komthetho woMbuso noma weFederal · ngaphambili, ngomhla, noma emuva usuku lokuqalisa kwalokhu isihlokwana izothuthukiswa, ngesikhathi seminyaka engu-I0 kulandela usuku lokugwetshwa-

(!) ukubamba iqhaza kuhlelo olusungulwe ngaphansi kwalesi sigaba noma isigaba 297C; futhi

(II) ukukhiqiza i-hemp ngaphansi kwanoma yiziphi izimiso noma imihlahlandlela ekhishwe ngaphansi kwesigaba 297D (a).

  • -Igatshana (i) angeke lisebenze kunoma yimuphi umuntu okhula ngokusemthethweni nelayisense, ukubhaliswa, · noma ukugunyazwa ngaphansi kohlelo lokushayela olugunyazwe isigaba 7606 sezoLimo Isenzo sika -2014 (7 USC 5940) ngaphambili usuku lokubhaliswa kwalesi sihloko.

I-7 USC § l 639p (e) (3) (B) (ukugcizelela kungeziwe). Izinkomba ezibhekiswe “osukwini lokumiswa kwalesi sihlokwana” zingaphansi kwesihloko G se-AMA, njengoba sengezwe yisigaba 10113 sika -2018 uFann Bill. Ngakho-ke, “usuku lokuqokwa kwalesi sihloko esingaphansi” usuku lokufakwa koMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 ngoDisemba 20, 2018.

Lapho sichaza ukuhlinzekwa kukaFelony, Umbiko Wenkomfa uphawula:

Noma yimuphi umuntu owatholakala enecala lokuhlobene nentengiso elawulwa yinto ethile ngeke akwazi ukubamba iqhaza ngaphansi kohlelo lwe- [S] noma lwethala le-T lokuphela konyaka we-JO emva kosuku lokugwetshwa. Kodwa-ke, lokhu kwenqatshwa ngeke kusebenze kubakhiqizi abake babambelela ngokusemthethweni ohlelweni [lwe-S] lwezinhlelo zokushayela i-hemp njengoba kugunyazwe ngumthetho wezoLimo wowezi-2014, ngaphambi kokuqalisa kwalesi sihloko. Ukukholwa okulandelayo ngemuva kosuku lokuqokwa kwalesi sihloko kuzobangela unyaka o-0

29 I-Mallory, I-BCF Doc. # 72, 2019 WL l 06 I677, ku- * 9 (ukuphika ukunyakaza kwe-United States ukuthi kuchitshiyelwe futhi kunikezwe izintshisekelo zabamangalelwa zokuchitha). I-Big Sky, I-BCF Doc. # 32, ku-28 (ukuphika ukunyakaziswa kwesimangalo se-preliminaiy sindiswa futhi uphawula ukuthi i-comt izokhipha ngokwahlukile i-oda elibeka inkomfa yokuhlela ukuphatha icala liya phambili).

Ikhasi 13

isikhathi sokungahlanganyeli noma ngabe umakhiqizi wabamba iqhaza ohlelweni lokushayela olugunyazwe ngonyaka we-2014.

I-HR REP. Cha. 115-1072, ku-737 (2018).

Sekukonke, umuntu olahlwe yicala loMbuso noma i-Federal felony ephathelene nento elawulwayo - kungakhathalekile ukuthi kwenzeke kanjani lokho kugwetshwa - akufanelekile ukukhiqiza i-hemp ngaphansi kwesihlokwana G se-AMA isikhathi esiyiminyaka engama-i0 kulandela usuku lokulahlwa kwecala. Ukhetho lukhona esigatshaneni (ii) soMhlinzeki weFelony osebenza kumuntu owayekhiqiza ngokusemthethweni i-hemp ngaphansi koMthethosivivinywa Wepulazi lowezi-2014 ngaphambi kukaDisemba 20, 2018, futhi owake watholakala enecala lokukhipha izitho eziphathelene nento elawulwayo ngaphambi kwalolo suku. Izizwe zaseMelika nezaseNdiya manje zinokuphinda kubekhona] Ukuyalela ukuthi umuntu afune ukukhiqiza i-hemp kuleyo nto edliwayo noma indawo ye-Tribal inanoma yiziphi izinkolelo zeFederal noma zoMbuso ezihlobene nezinto ezi-fo control ezingenza lowo muntu angafaneleki ukukhiqiza i-hemp.

  • EMINYE ISIHLOKO

Kunezici ezimbili ezibalulekile zalolu daba okufanele zigcizelelwe.

Okokuqala, uMthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 ugcina igunya leMelika kanye nezizwe zaseNdiya zokusebenzisa nokuqinisa · imithetho elawula ukwenziwa kwe-hemp enamathele kakhulu kunasemthethweni weFederal. Bona AMA

  • I-297B (a) (3) (7 USC § 1639p (a) (3)) ("Akukho lutho kulesigatshana esithanda noma sikhawulele noma yimuphi umthetho wesizwe soMbuso noma wamaNdiya o (…) olawula ukukhiqizwa kwe-hemp; kanye (ii) ) inamandla kunalesi siqeshana. "). Isibonelo, uMbuso ungaqhubeka nokwenqabela ukukhula noma ukutshala i-hemp kuleso Sifundazwe.30 Njengoba kuxoxwe ngenhla, noma kunjalo, ngenkathi izwe noma izwe laseNdiya lingavimba ukwenziwa kwe-hemp, kungenzeka kungavimbi ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp okuphakathi kukhiqizwe ngokuya ngomthetho we-Federal.

Okwesibili, uMthethosivivinywa we-Faim ka-2018 awuthinti noma uguqule igunya loNobhala Wezempilo Nezinsizakalo Zabantu (“HHS Secretary” ·) noma iKhomishani Yezokudla Nezidakamizwa (“FDA · · Commissioner”) ngaphansi kweFederal Food, Drug, kanye no Umthetho we-cosmetic Act (21 USC § 301 et seq.) Kanye nesigaba 351 soMthetho Wezinsizakalo Zezempilo Yomphakathi (42 USC § 262). Bona I-AMA§ 297D (c) (7 USC

  • 1639r (c)). Ngenkathi i-AMA§ 297D (b) ihlinzeka ukuthi uNobhala Wezolimo kufanele abe "negunya kuphela" lokukhipha imithetho nemihlahlandlela ye-Federal ehlobene nokukhiqizwa kwe-hemp; leli gunya lingaphansi kwegunya likaNobhala we-HHS kanye noKhomishani we-FDA ukukhuthaza imithetho nemihlahlandlela ye-Federal ngaphansi kwaleyo mithetho ye-FDA. I-7 USC § 1639r (b).

3 ° Izifundazwe ezithile ziyaqhubeka nokwenqabela ukutshala i-hemp. Bona Ingqungquthela Kazwelonke Yezishayamthetho Zombusazwe, "Izimo Zesimo Sokuhlola Izwe Lombuso," etholakala ku- http:// www.Ama-11cs l. i-org /ucwaningo h/ agriculTure-futhi-rural-Ukusungulwa / isimo-· indus trial-hEMP-statutes.aspx # stwadla (ivuselelwe ngoFebhuwari I, 2019).

  1. ISIPHETHO

Ngicubungulile ukunikezwa kwe-hemp okwenziwe njenge-patt yoMthethosivivinywa we-Fann we-2018 futhi ngafinyelela iziphetho ezilandelayo:

  1. Mayelana nokwenziwa koMthethosivivinywa We-Fatm we-2018 ngoDisemba 20, 2018, i-hemp isusiwe kuhlelo I lwe-CSA futhi ayisalawulwa
  2. Ngemuva kokuthi i-USDA ishicilele izimiso ezisebenzisa izinhlinzeko zokukhiqizwa kwe-hemp yoMthethosivivinywa we-Fatm ka-2018 oqukethwe yingxenye G ye-AMA, iMelika kanye nezizwe zaseNdiya angeke zikwenqabe ukuthppe transp1tation noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp ngokusemthethweni okuchazwe ngokusemthethweni njengoMbuso noma Tribal 'scheme noma ngaphansi kwelayisense ekhishwe nikeza ukwehliswa i;
  3. Izizwe zase-United States nezaseNdiya kungenzeka zingakwenqabeli ukuthutha okuphakathi noma ukuthunyelwa kwe-hemp okusemthethweni okukhishwe ngokusemthethweni
  4. Umuntu onecala loMbuso noma i-Federal felony elihlobene nento elawulwayo ingaphansi komkhawulo weminyaka engu-10 wokungakwazi ukwenziwa amandla okukhiqiza i-hemp ngaphansi kwesihlokwana G se-AMA. Ukuhluka kuyasebenza kumuntu owayekhula ngokusemthethweni i-hemp ngaphansi koMthethosivivinywa Wepulazi lowezi-2014 ngaphambi kukaDisemba 20, 2018, nokugwetshwa kwakhe futhi kwenzeka ngaphambi kwalolo suku.

Umthethosivivinywa Wezolimo wase-2018 ugcina igunya leMelika kanye nezizwe zamaNdiya zokusebenzisa futhi zisebenzise imithetho elawula ukwenziwa kwe-hemp okuwumthetho olandelanayo kwe-Federal. Ngokungeziwe, i-ilie 2018 Farm Bill ayithinti noma iguqule igunya loNgqongqoshe weHHS noma weKhomishini ye-FDA ukulawula i-hemp ngaphansi kwemithetho esebenzayo ye-FDA.

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Izithuthi zeCannabis

Izimoto zokuhamba zeCannabis Transport Cannabis ziyadingeka ukuthutha ukheshi, i-cannabis, nezinye izinto ezibalulekile ezindaweni zokugcina izimpahla, ezitolo ezithengisa izinto ezitolo nasemagumbini angasese. I-cannabis transporter i-NorCal Vans isijoyina nathi ngomvakashi ovakashelwe uDustin Robinson ukuxoxa okuhle ...

Ummeli wasePennsylvania Cannabis

Ummeli wasePennsylvania Cannabis

Ummeli waseCanabis Lawyer Pennsylvania ummeli we-cannabis, uPatrick K. Nightingale, ujoyina ukudingida intuthuko ye-cannabis ePennsylvania. Ukuvota kutholile ukuthi ama-62% abavoti abangabavoti ePennsylvania angavota ukwenza ngokusemthethweni ama-cannabis. Kodwa-ke, inqubekela phambili embusweni ibilokhu ...

Ukuthi Ukulethwa KweCannabis Kungabonakala Kanjani e-Illinois

Ukuthi Ukulethwa KweCannabis Kungabonakala Kanjani e-Illinois

AmaLayisense Wokulethwa e-Illinois Cannabis angafana nalokho ezinye izifundazwe ezikwenzile ngokulethwa kwawo kwe-cannabis. Njengoba sike sabika emavikini ambalwa edlule, iMassachusetts Cannabis Control Commission yavotela ukuthi iqhubekele phambili ngamalayisense okulethwa kanye nokulethwa kokuvumela ...

Ummeli wase-Arizona Cannabis

Ummeli wase-Arizona Cannabis

Ummeli wase-Arizona Cannabis Ummeli wase-cannabis, uThomas Dean, ujoyina ukudingida izinhlelo ze-cannabis i-Arizona enazo emisebenzini ye-2020. I-'Smart and Safe Arizona 'imile njengeyisinyathelo esivelele kepha ingabe ifaka phakathi ilungelo lakho lokukhula ekhaya, noma ikheli ...

Uhlelo lwebhizinisi lweCannabis

Uhlelo lwebhizinisi lweCannabis

I-Cannabis Business Plan Uhlelo lwebhizinisi lwe-cannabis luyadingeka kunoma yiliphi ibhizinisi elibheke ukuqala embonini ye-cannabis. Uhlelo lwebhizinisi lukubhalwe phansi ebhizinisini lakho le-cannabis futhi kungenza noma kuphule uhlelo lwakho lokusebenza ngokweqiniso. Ukubhala uhlelo lwebhizinisi kungaba ...

Ama-cannabis Proformas e-Dispensaries and Grows

Ama-cannabis Proformas e-Dispensaries and Grows

Ama-cannabis Proformas ama-Dispensaries kanye nama-Grows ama-cannabis ama-cannabis ama-dispensaries futhi akhula abalulekile kucebo lakho lebhizinisi le-cannabis. Kunethempulethi eziningana ze-proforma ezitholakala ku-inthanethi kepha iyini iprofayili ye-cannabis futhi ungakwenza kanjani ukucabanga okunembile ...

Ngabe iCannabis isemthethweni eNingizimu Afrika?

Ngabe iCannabis isemthethweni eNingizimu Afrika?

Ngabe iCannabis isemthethweni eNingizimu Afrika? Ngabe insangu isemthethweni eSouth Africa? Yebo, kuyinkimbinkimbi. Ngesinye isikhathi iNingizimu Afrika ibingumkhiqizi wesine omkhulu we-cannabis emhlabeni kepha uma usebenzisa insangu eSouth Africa ngaphandle kwendlu yakho yangasese, unga ...

Ngabe udinga Ummeli weCannabis?

Abameli bethu bebhizinisi le-cannabis nabo bangabanikazi bebhizinisi. Bangakusiza ekuhleleni ibhizinisi lakho noma bakusize ekuvikeleni emithethweni enzima ngokweqile.

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316 SW Washington Street, Suite 1A
Peoria, Illinois 61602

Ucingo: (309) 740-4033 || Email: tom@collateralbase.com


I-150 S. Wacker Drayivu, Suite 2400,
I-Chicago IL, 60606 USA

Ucingo: 312-741-1009 || Email: tom@collateralbase.com

ummeli wezimboni ze-cannabis

316 SW Washington St, Peoria,
I-IL 61602, e-USA
Sishayele (309) 740-4033 || e-mail Us tom@collateralbase.com
Izimboni zeCannabis & Legalization

Izimboni zeCannabis & Legalization

Bhalisa futhi uthole okusha embonini ye-cannabis. Kuzoba ngama-imeyili ama-2 ngenyanga konke!

Uphumelele ukubhalisela!

Yabelana Lokhu